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Sciencedomain International fights against predatory publishers

Many open-access publishers publish low-quality research papers. They only want to make easy money, so they publish whatever articles they receive without peer review. Some publishers publish articles in their journals within one or two days after submission, if they receive the publication charge. Jeffrey Beall, the Denver-based former librarian, first coined the term “predatory publishing” in 2011, to identify such ‘pay to publish’ journals, who publish anything without peer review. But at the later stage, his intention and methodology to identify predatory journals were questioned. Many academicians proved that Beall's evaluation was biased and highly erroneous. Please see the related discussion here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffrey_Beall. But nobody can deny the contribution of Mr. Beall to identify the black side of open access scholarly publication.

 

‘Sciencedomain International’ fights against predatory publication practices for many years. ‘Sciencedomain International’ is also a victim of predatory publication model and many times ‘Sciencedomain International’ was labelled with “predatory” stamp, as ‘Sciencedomain International’ also follow open access publication model. Confusion and mixing the name of ‘Sciencedomain International’ with low-quality predatory publishers harmed the brand image and business of ‘Sciencedomain International’ in many ways.

Some distinguished operating principles of ‘Sciencedomain International’ are discussed below. These below mentioned points clearly prove the difference of ‘Sciencedomain International’ with predatory publishers.

 

1. OPEN Peer review:

‘Sciencedomain International’ International journals follow a transparent and robust OPEN peer review model. All peer review reports, comments of the editors and different versions of the manuscripts are also made publicly posted along with the published paper. This process eradicates any possibility of malicious interference by the publisher to publish papers only for money, by compromising academic quality. The main complaint against predatory publishers is that anybody can publish anything by paying hefty money. And predatory publishers compromise the peer review process or don't do peer review to publish any paper. As ‘Sciencedomain International’ journals follow transparent OPEN peer review model, so the main criteria of predatory publishing can not be applied against ‘Sciencedomain International’. Very politely we want to tell that our peer review system is not perfect. But we strongly want to say that we don't follow the predatory publication model.

Some examples:

a. http://bit.ly/open-review-2

b.  http://bit.ly/open-review-3

c. http://bit.ly/open-review-4  

 

1.1 World famous Science Journal article authenticated high peer review standard of SDI journal

Now it is obvious that all publisher will tell good about itself. But to establish the claim of a publisher, it must be authenticated by some third-party neutral agency. Please see that our claim of the high standard of peer review is authenticated by the world-famous Science journal article.  Please see the investigative report here (http://bit.ly/science-report-111). It was reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected the fake article after substantial peer review. We are happy that our journal was among these few successful journals along with industry leaders like PLoS One, Hindawi, etc.

 

2. POST-publication peer review:

The pre-publication Peer review evaluation system is not perfect and many academicians proved loop-holes of the peer review system. We also never claimed that the peer review system is perfect. But we have tried to make it as transparent as possible. But still, we know that there will be errors. So we introduced also POST-publication peer review system.  SDI journal Web sites provide the ability for users to comment on articles to facilitate community evaluation and discourse around published articles. The comment section is mainly dedicated to promote "Post-publication peer review". Please see here: http://bit.ly/post-peer-review.  As a result of this "Post-publication peer review", if authors agree and or journal Editors agree (and or SDI agrees) that any correction is necessary, then it will be published FREE of cost by following SDI Correction and retraction policy (http://bit.ly/retraction-policy).

 

3. Transparent Editorial Board:

All SDI journals have a transparent editorial board. Many times predatory journals post the name of editors without their consent. Sometimes predatory journals publish fictitious editors. All SDI journals publish complete academic affiliation of all editors. Additionally, SDI journals publish email ID, short biography and link of the institutional webpage of editors for complete transparency. All communications with the editors are also permanently digitally preserved. Along with the published paper, identity and comments of the academic editor are also published. Therefore, very politely we want to say that we may not have the strongest editors of the world. But we have a highly transparent and active editorial board to maintain the quality of the journal.

 

3.1 World famous Nature journal article confirmed the high standard of SDI editors and journals

Now it is necessary to provide the proof of the high standard of editors of SDI journals. We hereby provide the proof from an article of world-famous NATURE journal article. One of our journals was also targeted by the authors of this NATURE article as part of the sting operation.  We are happy to inform that Nature (Impact Factor: 41.6) article confirmed high standard of SDI journal and its editors.  Please, read the investigative report here (http://bit.ly/Nature-report-111).

 

4. Moderate Acceptance rate:

SDI journals have average 51-63%. Even some authors praised openly about our peer review system, though their paper was rejected. Please see here some proof: http://bit.ly/author-speaks1

 

5. Publons ranks 6 SDI journals among top 1000 journals of the world

Famous Publons (a part of Thomson Reuters Clarivate Analytics), also confirmed the high standard and transparency of peer review system of SDI journals. There are more than 40,000 academic journals worldwide. As per Publons website, 6 journals from ‘Sciencedomain International’ International was placed among top 1000 journals like Nature, Science, PlosOne, BMJ, etc. Please see here: http://bit.ly/publon-rank  (website accessed on 09-07-2018).

 

6. High profile authors

High standard of SDI journals has attracted authors from world famous universities like  Harvard University,  Columbia University,  Cambridge University, University of Chicago,  UC Berkeley,  Göttingen University, etc. Please see here: http://bit.ly/author-profiles

 From the above discussion, it is imperative to say that ‘Sciencedomain International’ does not follow predatory publication practices.
Sciencedomain fights against predatory publication practices

Many open-access publishers publish low-quality research papers. They only want to make easy money, so they publish whatever articles they receive without peer review. Some publishers publish articles in their journals within one or two days after submission, if they receive the publication charge. Jeffrey Beall, the Denver-based former librarian, first coined the term “predatory publishing” in 2011, to identify such ‘pay to publish’ journals, who publish anything without peer review. But at the later stage, his intention and methodology to identify predatory journals were questioned. Many academicians proved that Beall's evaluation was biased and highly erroneous. Please see the related discussion here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffrey_Beall. But nobody can deny the contribution of Mr. Beall to identify the black side of open access scholarly publication.

                                                 

Sciencedomain fights against predatory publication practices for many years. Sciencedomain is also a victim of predatory publication model and many times Sciencedomain was labelled with “predatory” stamp, as Sciencedomain also follow open access publication model. Confusion and mixing the name of Sciencedomain with low-quality predatory publishers harmed the brand image and business of Sciencedomain in many ways.

Some distinguished operating principles of Sciencedomain are discussed below. These below mentioned points clearly prove the difference of Sciencedomain with predatory publishers.

 

1. OPEN Peer review:

Sciencedomain International journals follow a transparent and robust OPEN peer review model. All peer review reports, comments of the editors and different versions of the manuscripts are also made publicly posted along with the published paper. This process eradicates any possibility of malicious interference by the publisher to publish papers only for money, by compromising academic quality. The main complaint against predatory publishers is that anybody can publish anything by paying hefty money. And predatory publishers compromise the peer review process or don't do peer review to publish any paper. As Sciencedomain journals follow transparent OPEN peer review model, so the main criteria of predatory publishing can not be applied against Sciencedomain international. Very politely we want to tell that our peer review system is not perfect. But we strongly want to say that we don't follow the predatory publication model.

Some examples:

a. http://bit.ly/open-review-2

b.  http://bit.ly/open-review-3

c. http://bit.ly/open-review-4  

 

1.1 World famous Science Journal article authenticated high peer review standard of SDI journal

Now it is obvious that all publisher will tell good about itself. But to establish the claim of a publisher, it must be authenticated by some third-party neutral agency. Please see that our claim of the high standard of peer review is authenticated by the world-famous Science journal article.  Please see the investigative report here (http://bit.ly/science-report-111). It was reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected the fake article after substantial peer review. We are happy that our journal was among these few successful journals along with industry leaders like PLoS One, Hindawi, etc.

 

2. POST-publication peer review:

The pre-publication Peer review evaluation system is not perfect and many academicians proved loop-holes of the peer review system. We also never claimed that the peer review system is perfect. But we have tried to make it as transparent as possible. But still, we know that there will be errors. So we introduced also POST-publication peer review system.  SDI journal Web sites provide the ability for users to comment on articles to facilitate community evaluation and discourse around published articles. The comment section is mainly dedicated to promote "Post-publication peer review". Please see here: http://bit.ly/post-peer-review.  As a result of this "Post-publication peer review", if authors agree and or journal Editors agree (and or SDI agrees) that any correction is necessary, then it will be published FREE of cost by following SDI Correction and retraction policy (http://bit.ly/retraction-policy).

 

3. Transparent Editorial Board:

All SDI journals have a transparent editorial board. Many times predatory journals post the name of editors without their consent. Sometimes predatory journals publish fictitious editors. All SDI journals publish complete academic affiliation of all editors. Additionally, SDI journals publish email ID, short biography and link of the institutional webpage of editors for complete transparency. All communications with the editors are also permanently digitally preserved. Along with the published paper, identity and comments of the academic editor are also published. Therefore, very politely we want to say that we may not have the strongest editors of the world. But we have a highly transparent and active editorial board to maintain the quality of the journal.

 

3.1 World famous Nature journal article confirmed the high standard of SDI editors and journals

Now it is necessary to provide the proof of the high standard of editors of SDI journals. We hereby provide the proof from an article of world-famous NATURE journal article. One of our journals was also targeted by the authors of this NATURE article as part of the sting operation.  We are happy to inform that Nature (Impact Factor: 41.6) article confirmed high standard of SDI journal and its editors.  Please, read the investigative report here (http://bit.ly/Nature-report-111).

 

4. Moderate Acceptance rate:

SDI journals have average 51-63%. Even some authors praised openly about our peer review system, though their paper was rejected. Please see here some proof: http://bit.ly/author-speaks1

 

5. Publons ranks 6 SDI journals among top 1000 journals of the world

Famous Publons (a part of Thomson Reuters Clarivate Analytics), also confirmed the high standard and transparency of peer review system of SDI journals. There are more than 40,000 academic journals worldwide. As per Publons website, 6 journals from Sciencedomain International was placed among top 1000 journals like Nature, Science, PlosOne, BMJ, etc. Please see here: http://bit.ly/publon-rank  (website accessed on 09-07-2018).

 

6. High profile authors

High standard of SDI journals has attracted authors from world famous universities like  Harvard University,  Columbia University,  Cambridge University, University of Chicago,  UC Berkeley,  Göttingen University, etc. Please see here: http://bit.ly/author-profiles

 

 From the above discussion, it is imperative to say that Sciencedomain does not follow predatory publication practices.


Identification of Insect Pest Species of Maize, Their Infestation and Damage Levels at Ziway Dugda Woreda, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Abstracts

The survey was carried out in 2017 main cropping season to support farmers for correct insect pest identification. Three Kebeles, Hallo, Sambaro and Herara with five farmer’s fields randomly selected. Ten representative plants were taken from each field. Data on mean larval density per plant, percentage leaf infestation and damage levels were assessed. Results from mean larval density per plant showed that significant difference between insect species (R2= 0.96, Pr (>|Z|=0.013) where the highest 1.55-2.30 was recorded from C. partellus. There was a significant difference between C. partellus and M. trapezalis; S. frugiperda and M. trapezalis in percentage leaf infestation (R2=0.75, Pr. (>|Z|=2e-16) where, the highest were recorded from C. partellus and S. frugiperda representing 50-90% and 40-90% respectively. From the above, C. partellus and S. frugiperda were at risk, as a result insecticide was recommended. M. trapezalis showed a lower infestation level so that hand picking was more economical than use of insecticide. Hence, registration and detail molecular identification will be needed as M. trapezals is the first record on maize crop in Ethiopia.

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Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of Pterocarpus erinaceus Stem Bark

Abstracts

The use of plants for medicine is gaining more acceptability worldwide due to its availability, affordability, efficiency and considerable safety. This study sought to gather information on the phytochemical and nutrient composition of Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark. This will be a guide to the importance of the plant healthwise. Phytochemical, proximate, mineral and vitamin analysis was done using standard procedures. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids were present in both aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus. Anthraquinone was present only in the ethanolic extract. Proximate analysis shows high carbohydrate and fibre content 39.33 ± 0.05% and 31.22 ± 0.32% respectively. The extract also contains 8.70 ± 1.10% protein and 0.45 ± 0.50% fat. Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark is a rich source of vitamin A (75.87 ±0.12 IU/100 g) and B9 (71.25 ± 1.23 mcg/100 g). Heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) were not detected in this study. Phosphorus and iron were detected in high amount. This therefore justifies the use of this plant for the treatment of diseases such as aneamia and diarrhea. Research should be carried out on this stem bark to explore more potentials of this plant.

 

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A Study on the Population Scenario of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in and around Alwara Lake of District Kaushambi (U.P.), India

Abstracts

The Indian Sarus crane, Grus antigone antigone is one of the most graceful, monogamous, non-migratory, and tallest flying bird of the world. Pairing for lifelong and lionize legendry marital fidelity, for which the species has garnered global popularity. This is the only resident breeding crane of the Indian subcontinent that has been declared as ‘State Bird’ by the Government of Uttar Pradesh, a state of the Indian Republic. However, due to the shrinking of wetlands at an alarming speed in the country, the population of this bird has become vulnerable.  Present exploration is aimed to study the population of sarus crane in the year 2016 in and around the Alwara Lake of district Kaushambi (Uttar Pradesh) India and their comparison to sarus crane population recorded in 2012 and 2015 in the same study area. This comparison reflects an increasing population scenario of the bird in the area studied.  It has been observed that the prevailing ecological conditions of the lake, the crane friendly behaviour of the local residents and awareness efforts of the authors have a positive correlation in the conservation and increasing population trends of this vulnerable bird. This conservation model can, therefore, be applied elsewhere for the conservation of other such species. Moreover, the authors strongly recommend continuous population census of this bird and declaration of the entire Alwara Lake as Sarus Sanctuary to make it safe zone for the conservation of Sarus crane.

Keywords :Alwara Lake; conservation; population census; Sarus crane; wetland.

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The Influence of Meteorological Parameters on Atmospheric Visibility over Ikeja, Nigeria

Abstracts

This present study investigates the variation of atmospheric visibility with meteorological parameters of measured monthly average daily visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and wind speed for a period of 12-years over Ikeja, Lagos State, South Western, Nigeria (Latitude 6.58°N, Longitude 3.33°E and altitude 40 m above sea level). The results indicated that the seasonal variation of atmospheric visibility is greater during the rainy season than in the dry season. The best visibility was observed during the rainy season with an average value of 9.73 km in the month of April while the worst visibility was during the dry season with an average value of 5.88 km in the month of January. The results from regular observation of atmospheric visibility for the study area during the period under investigation indicated that the observed visibility ranged between 5.88 ± 1.03 km and 9.73 ± 1.03 km with annual mean of 8.68 ± 1.03 km which implies that the atmosphere is mostly clear. The average atmospheric extinction coefficient computed for the study area is approximately 0.4628 km-1 (4.628 × 10-4m-1). Simple linear regression equation relating the atmospheric visibility and the meteorological parameters were developed from which the regression equation relating atmospheric visibility with relative humidity was recommended based on the coefficient of correlation ®, coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of estimates (SEE) and p-value. The skewness and kurtosis for the atmospheric visibility are negatively skewed with value -1.514 and positive kurtosis (leptokurtic distribution) with value 1.244.

 

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Public and Healthcare Practitioner Attitudes towards HIV Testing: Review of Evidence from the United Kingdom (UK)

Abstracts

Aims: To explore attitudes towards HIV testing in the United Kingdom (UK) from the public and healthcare practitioners (HCP) to more fully understand the barriers and motivators towards testing.

Methodology: Electronic databases Pubmed, Web of Science, OVID Medline and Google were searched. We included studies conducted in the UK that had explored public and HCP attitudes towards HIV testing, published in the combination antiretroviral therapy era (1996–2014). We excluded studies relating to HIV testing or screening of pregnant women.

Results: In a total of 64 studies identified, 41 and 23 were on positive and negative attitudes towards HIV testing of the public and HCP, respectively. Common barriers reported by the public were stigma, fear, denial, and low perception of risk. Common barriers reported by HCP were lack of confidence or anxiety around offering a test, privacy and confidentiality, and insufficient knowledge/training in HIV. Public motivators towards testing were: HCP offering/recommending a test, universal testing at practice registration, outreach rapid point-of-care (POC) testing offered as part of a check-up, availability of home testing/sampling, and informing patients about HIV and the benefit of receiving treatment.

Conclusions: Recommendations to overcome barriers include making HIV testing routine, easier and more accessible. Outreach POC testing, home testing and sampling offer motivators to testing such as ease of access, privacy and confidentiality. A proactive offer of an HIV test by the HCP is an important factor which could help increase testing rates. This could be facilitated by further education and training of HCP in General Practice.

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An Investigation of the Relationship between Indices of Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult Females




Abstracts

 

Background: According to the World Health Organisation [1] obesity is now a “global epidemic”, ranking as the fifth most common cause of death worldwide. Obesity prevalence has more than doubled over the past two decades [2], with particularly high levels in Scotland [3]. Obesity shows strong associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the largest single cause of death in the UK [4]; accounting for one in three deaths. Currently NICE [5] recommend using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for obesity assessment. Recently Krakauer and Krakauer [6] proposed the novel “a body shape index” (ABSI) for better predicting mortality hazard. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between BMI, WC, percentage body fat (%BF), ABSI and various cardiovascular risk factors in adult females.

 

Methods: The study was granted university ethical approval had an observational cross-sectional design and recruited through convenience sampling. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry methodologies were used to measure height, weight and WC. Single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis enabled estimation of %BF. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated by dividing weight (kg) by height squared (m2). ABSI (m11/6 kg-2/3) was calculated by dividing WC (m) by BMI2/3 (kg/m2) height½ (m) using an online calculator. Physical activity levels (PAL) and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and self-reports of alcohol intake and alcoholic binges were also obtained. Vascular health was determined via: blood pressure (BP); carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the augmentation index (AIx) using a Vicorder™ device. SPSS v.19 was used to determine Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients for normally distributed data (WC, ABSI, sitting time, systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean BP) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients for all other data.

 

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Comparative Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Locally Refined Diesel and Kerosene on Rhizopus stolonifer in Rivers State, Nigeria





Abstracts




Aim: To compare the effect of locally refined diesel and kerosene on Rhizopus stolonifer in tri aquatic bodies.
 
Study Design: The study employs experimental assay and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.
 
Place of Study: Freshwater, brackish water, and marine water samples were collected in sterile bottles from Ugama Ekede Stream, Ugama Ekede River and at the foot of the Atlantic ocean in Udun Ama all in Andoni Local Government Area Rivers State, using sterile sampling bottles. These samples were transported to the microbiological laboratory with ice pack within 24 hours for both isolations of test organisms and toxicity.
 
Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing locally refined diesel and kerosene at concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%, tested for durations of 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h. The cultures were incubated at 35ºC for 48 hours. LC50 was determined.
 
Results: The results indicate that logarithm of mortality of Rhizopus stolonifer increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the locally refined diesel and kerosene increases in the following order: (Note: the higher the LC50, the lower the toxic effect. Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in fresh water (41.88%) <Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in fresh water (41.64.5%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in brackish water (43.28%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in brackish water (33.41%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in marine water (40.17%) <Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in marine water (36.10%).
 
Conclusion: Locally refined kerosene in brackish water (LC50 = 33.41%) is the most toxic, having the lowest LC50 while locally refined diesel in brackish water (LC50 = 43.28%) have the lowest toxicity effect. These results show that locally refined diesel and kerosene can inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer in an aquatic ecosystem.
 
Keywords :Locally refined diesel and kerosene; toxicity; Rhizopus stolonifer; freshwater; brackish water; marine water; ecosystem.







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Induction of Resistance in Poplar to Melampsora larici-populina Using L-form Bacteria









Abstracts
 
Poplars (Populus spp.) of the Family Salicaceae are extensively cultivated worldwide and are susceptible to a variety of bacterial and fungal diseases. In Populus species, leaf rust disease caused by several species of Melampsora leads to considerable damages in plantations.  Melampsora larici-populina is the most devastating and widespread fungal pathogen causing leaf rust disease in poplars. In this study, leaves and young stems of rooted cuttings of two poplar clones were treated with L-form bacteria of Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 8054, ATCC 6633 and then challenged with the spores of rust pathogen M. larici-populina. The development of uredinia was evaluated in the laboratory using the leaf disc assay. The L-forms greatly reduced rust severity in inoculated poplar leaves (local effect), while to a lesser extent in non-inoculated leaves obtained from inoculated plants showing a low systemic effect on pustule development. This plant- L-form symbiosis may have contributed significantly to a quantitative resistance to M. larici-populina indicating a promising implication for the use of L-form bacteria of B. subtilis as a biocontrol agent for poplars against the rust pathogen.




Keywords :L-form bacteria; plant-L-form association; induced resistance; Populus spp.; Melampsora larici-populina; leaf disc assay.







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Conventional and Nano-Based Therapy against Chronic Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases





Abstracts

Structural or functional damage to cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems emerging from immunologically competent cells or antibodies against a normal component of the host body may lead to autoimmune disorder or diseases. There are about 152 autoimmune diseases classified till now by American Autoimmune Related Disease Association. Current research investigators are more focused on certain autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac disease, Sjögren's syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, type-1 diabetes, alopecia areata, vasculitis and temporal arteritis. Chronic inflammation is a common link among most of the autoimmune disorder, but the exact link is not clear. Therefore an effective cure for the disease could not be developed. The conventional therapeutics available is steadily getting constrained because of the development resistance. Present therapeutic shows some limitations such as unidirectional, unspecific and resistance with specific side-effect. With the present advancement in science and technology, it is now possible to alienate the present constraints offered by the present conventional therapeutics by the application of biocompatible, biodegradable nano-formulated drug delivery system. Therefore the intention of this mini-review is to provide a base knowledge about the relationship of autoimmune diseases with inflammation as well as the efficiency of the conventional and nanotechnology-based therapy.







Keywords :Autoimmunity; inflammation; nanotechnology; nanoformulation; drug delivery; biodegradable; biocompatible.

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Callus Induction from Zygotic Embryos of Coconut MATAG F2

Abstracts

The effect of 2,4-D (in concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L) applied in combination with BAP (1.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L) on callus induction in coconut MATAG F2 zygotic embryos cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was investigated. The effects of IBA, TDZ and NAA combined with 2,4-D were also tested. The best callus formation (20%) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D at 10.0 mg/L. The induced calli were yellowish in colour and structurally compact. Different portions of the zygotic embryo were also compared for callus induction when used as explants and cultured on MS medium supplemented 10.0 mg/L 2,4-D. The incidence of callus formation (up to 83%) was highest from the middle portion of the embryos.

 

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Development of Triploid Callus of Hevea brasiliensis Using Endosperm

Abstracts

Aim: To generate a pathway for development of Hevea triploids using endosperm tissue as an explant.

Study Design: Standardization and optimisation of various parameters for isolation and culture of endosperm tissue and protoplast. Completely randomized design for data from different treatment. Ploidy of the obtained culture was determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Rubber Research Institute of India and duration of the study 12 months.

Methodology: Endosperm tissues were collected from Hevea seeds of different developmental stages. Somatic embryogenesis from endosperm tissue using callus mediated embryogenesis and direct method of embryogenesis were carried. Endosperm tissue from both immature and mature seeds was cut into thin slices and subjected to enzymatic digestion for the release of protoplasts. Different concentrations and combinations of cell wall digestion enzymes and osmotic agents experimented. The callus obtained from endosperm tissue was subjected to cytological analysis and flow cytometric analysis.

Results: Endosperm tissue from immature fruits was found to be ideal one week between (8-10 weeks) both for somatic embryogenesis and for the release of large amount of protoplasts. Of the two basal media tried, Nitsch medium favoured callus induction, 6 % callus induction from mature endosperm tissue in presence of 2,4-D (6.3 µM) and Kin (12.1 µM) and 10 % callus induction from immature endosperm tissue in presence of  BA (4.4 µM) and NAA (2.2 µM). Direct embryogenesis (2 %) has been obtained from immature endosperm in MS basal medium along with GA3 (2.0 µM) and BA (11.1 µM). A few of the endosperm protoplasts showed division when cultured over K&M medium with NAA (0.1 µM) 2,4-D (0.2 µM) and BA (0.4 µM).

Conclusion: Endosperm can be used for the development of triploids of Hevea brasiliensis. The ploidy variants i.e. triploids, developed through these in vitro techniques can be further used in Hevea brasiliensis breeding.

 

 

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Assessment of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV-AIDS Patients Attending Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital Birnin-Kebbi, Nigeria

Abstracts

Aims: To assess lipid profile among HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and controls in our environment.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 120 participants consisting of 40 HIV patients on ART, 40 ART-naïve patients and 40 negative controls.

Place and Duration of Study: Antiretroviral Clinic, Sir Yahayya Memorial Hospital, Birnin-Kebbi and Chemical Pathology Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between March, 2016 and June, 2016.

Methodology: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) were assayed based on enzymatic methods using SELECTRA XL automated chemistry analyzer with analysis in batches. LDL-c and atherogenic index (AI) was calculated using Friedwald’s formula (LDL-c = TC-(TG/2.2)-HDL-c mmol/L) (Satya, 2011) and TC/HDL-c respectively.

Results: Our result showed that the mean values of TC and HDLc was significantly higher (p<0.01) in HIV patients on ART compared to controls. The serum LDL-c was significantly lower (p<0.05) between patients on ART and controls. AI was significantly lower (p<0.01) in HIV patients on ART compared to controls. There was no statistically significant difference in TC and AI (P>0.05) between ART-naïve HIV-patients and controls. However, statistically significant difference was observed in BMl and LDL-c (P<0.05) in ART-naïve HIV-patients and controls. No statistically significant difference observed in the mean age, TG and LDL-c (P>0.05) between the patients on ART and ART-naïve patients. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in TC, HDL-c, AI and BMl in patients on ART compared to ART-naïve patients.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that HIV infected patients have a host of variations in their lipid profile compared to HIV negative controls in our environment. The dyslipidemia levels, high LDL-c and TG were found in patients compared to control. ART could have additional advantage of enhancing HDL-c and may be associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular events.

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Optimization of Palm Olein Stability during Storage Using Natural Antioxidants from Cocoa Pods Extract

Abstracts

Aims: The objective of this study is an attempt to optimize palm olein stability during storage using natural antioxidants from Theobroma cacao pods.

Study Design: Drying of fresh cocoa pods, extraction of natural antioxidants and its application as antioxidants to optimize oxidative stability of palm olein during storage.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Dschang, Cameroon and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad, India, from March 2016 to January 2017.

Methodology: The plant material was extracted and its reducing power, metal ion chelating activity evaluated. The extract was added in refined palm olein. Peroxide, p-Anisidine and total oxidation (TOTOX) values were determined as response variables to evaluate the effect of storage time and extract concentration during storage of oil.

Results: The outcomes showed cocoa pods extract to be efficient in metal ion chelating activity and have the ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. This extract was also found to be efficient in inhibiting peroxide formation and reducing, in the same way, the amount of secondary oxidation products. At 2000 ppm, Theobroma cacao pods extract has the ability to extend the shelf life (30 months) of palm olein during storage.

 

Conclusion: Theobroma cacao pods can be exploited as an alternative source of synthetic antioxidants for stabilization of palm olein and other oil systems.















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Eucalyptus Expansion as Relieving and Provocative Tree in Ethiopia

Abstracts

Over the last century, Eucalyptus has rapidly expanded across the globe. It has become the most planted tree species. Environmentalists fear this for the perceived negative eco-hydrological impact. Foresters and wood industries support its expansion looking at its socio-economic benefits. Ethiopia is one of the countries where Eucalyptus dominates forest development gains in the last century. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the expansion, benefit and challenges of Eucalyptus in Ethiopia. Eucalyptus was introduced to Africa, and Ethiopia, around the end of the 19th century, in 1890s. Since then it has continued to expand to cover wider geographic areas within Ethiopia: highland and lowland. It is providing multiple purposes, economic and social, for millions of households in urban and rural areas. It has substituted effectively some of the natural forest’s functions, principally in wood supply; hence this way it has contributed to reducing pressure and in slowing down deforestation. Yet Eucalyptus sustained blame for ecosystem water and soil nutrient drains, and allelopathic effect to suppress native flora growth. Studies on these aspects of the genus are inconclusive. Some argue the extravagant use of water and nutrient, while others argue otherwise. There are studies that show water and nutrient use of Eucalyptus is based on availability: for instance, dry season and wet season uses are not the same. The most known about Eucalyptus is its high nutrient and water use efficiency. Therefore, when evaluated on per volume of water, nutrient and land allocated for biomass production, Eucalyptus will provide the highest biomass return. This may make it the preferred species. The paper concludes that the development of Eucalyptus forestry is crucial in narrowing the gap between forest product demand and supply in the current context of Ethiopia and most African countries, but such development should be managed with proper silviculture: Planted in the right site and tended properly to optimize its positive values and reduce possible negative effects.















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Selection of Resistant Varieties of Okra to Yellow Vein Clearing Mosaic Virus and Its Management

Abstracts

 

A two-factorial field experiment on okra was conducted at the Horticulture Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka from April to August 2015. The aim of the study was to find out the resistance of okra varieties against the Yellow vein clearing mosaic virus (YVCMV) and its management. Four varieties viz. BARI dherosh-1, Green finger, Nuffield and Orca onamika were selected as the first factor and two insecticides (Imidacloprid and Sobicron) and one botanical nutrient namely Peak performance nutrients (PPN) were used as the second factor. The plants were grown and natural inoculum was relied upon for the infection of YVCMV. Growth parameters, yield attributes, and physiological features were significantly affected by okra varieties and two selected insecticides and PPN combinations. YVCMV incidence was significantly varied with these combinations. Among the varieties, the lowest disease incidence was found in BARI dherosh-1 which showed high resistance. Green finger and Nuffield provided moderate resistance where Orca onamika was highly susceptible to the disease incidence. Application of Sobicron with PPN gave the lowest disease incidence while the control under the application of no insecticides and PPN gave the highest disease incidence. The availability of resistance sources against the virus is very limited among the cultivated okra varieties. Though BARI dherosh-1 provides resistance mechanism against the virus, Green finger and Nuffield which are moderate resistant can be developed as resistant cultivars through genetic regulation along with the molecular mechanism of resistance to YVCMV.







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Mobile and Internet Addiction among Urban Respondents

Abstracts

This study was done in Hisar city of Haryana state in India. Data were collected from 160 urban respondents of different age groups. Majority of respondents check their mobile phone within every five minutes (36.2%) followed by every notification (31.2%) and within every half an hour (18.7%). The overall scores indicate that respondents from 16-30 years and >30-45 years had a high addiction of smartphone while the other two groups had medium addiction by overall weighted mean score.

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Dielectric Properties of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Tetrafluoroborate (EMIM-BF4) Using Cole-Cole Relaxation Model

Abstracts

The Cole-Cole relaxation equations were derived from the Debye equation. The dielectric constant and loss factor of EMIM-BF4 were fitted using the derived equations at temperature range of 5°C to 65°C and frequency range of 0.1GHz to 10GHz. The result obtained shows that the dielectric constant and loss factor of EMIM-BF4 were higher at low frequency (i.e. f =0.1GHZ and decrease as the frequency increases. The dielectric constant also increases with increase in the temperature except at 0.1GHz. At 15°C there was a sudden increase in the dielectric constant especially as the frequency increases beyond 5GHz. This sudden increase in the dielectric constant of EMIM-BF4 may be due to the phase change of EMIM-BF4. The loss factor of EMIM-BF4 was generally small for all frequencies and temperatures. This may be due to the fact that EMIM-BF4 consumed less energy when subjected to an applied field.

 































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Effectiveness of Brain-based Learning Strategy on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Knowledge Retention in Electrochemistry

Abstracts

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Brain-Based Learning strategy on students’ academic achievement, attitude, motivation and knowledge retention in Electrochemistry. The study used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. A total of 87 Senior Secondary Two students from two intact classes from North-Eastern part of Nigeria with an average age of 17 years of 2015/2016 academic session participated in this study. One of the classes served as the experimental group that used Brain-Based Learning (N=40) while the other was control group that used Lecture-Based Teaching method (N=47). Data were collected through achievement test, attitude and motivation scales. The data collected were analyzed with means, independent t-test, and Analysis of Covariate which were used to compare the groups’ scores. The findings of the study reve­aled that the Brain-Based Learning approach used in the experimental group was more effective in incre­asing student achievement, attitude and motivation of students towards chemistry than the Lecture-Based approach used in the control group. It was identified that the difference between retention test scores were also statistically significant in favour of experimental group.























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Foliar Fertilization Using Liquid Tannery Sludge in Conilon Coffee Seedlings Production

Abstracts

The waste destination is a concern to industries and, one of the solutions are fertilizers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency liquid tannery sludge has as an alternative of foliar fertilization in Conilon coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with six treatments and eight replications, for 228 days. The control treatment was pure water, and five doses of tannery sludge were applied monthly (6.20, 8.80, 11.47, 14.10, and 17.60 mL of sludge diluted in one liter of water). The biometric and gravimetric growth characteristics were evaluated. Also, the quality index of the seedlings was assessed, and it was observed that fertilization using tannery sludge diluted above 14.23 mL.L-1 began to cause toxic effects on Conilon coffee seedlings. The doses between 8.80 and 14.23 mL.L-1 showed potential usefulness for the seedlings production.































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Clinical Urogenital Findings in Post Traumatic Pelvic Injuries Diagnosed with Plain Radiography in Southwestern Nigeria

Abstracts 

 Aims:  This is aimed at highlighting the clinical urogenital findings in post traumatic pelvic injuries diagnosed with plain radiography.

Study Design: Prospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The accident and emergency departments of the tertiary hospitals of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, and Lagos State Health Service Commission’s Accident and Emergency Services Hospitals (LASEMS) between January 1st2009 and December 31st 2009.).

Methodology: One hundred (100) patients of all ages were recruited, diagnosed by plain radiography as pelvic traumatic injury (51 males and 49 females). Their corresponding radiographic findings and the types of trauma, sociodemographic and clinical data obtained from the request cards and case notes or files were reviewed. The radiographic findings, socio-demographic and clinical data of these patients were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info Version 6 Statistical Software on an IBM-compatible computer.

Results:  51 (51%) females and forty-nine 49 (49%) males seen at tertiary hospitals in the Lagos metropolis were recruited for this study.

Ten (10) different categories of urogenital lesions were found in eighty-three (83) occurrences among the patients in a fairly equal sex distribution made of thirty-nine (39) males and forty-four (44) females.

Haematuria was the commonest finding in thirty-five (35) patients (47.29%), occurred more in Acetabular fracture (20.48%) while the least occurrence was found in two (2) each of vesicovagina fistula and urethra stenosis representing 2.41 %.

















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Automatic Controlling System of Drip Irrigation Based on GSM

Abstracts 

Due to the population increase over the world, every field and every of a department of life are updating themselves to increase the efficiency and output product. So the development of agriculture and agriculture-related sections must also be developed. Lack of rain and ultimately a lack of water scarcity is being observed in many areas of the world. The other side aspect is that there are a numerous number of leakages in the line, which waste much water. There is a need for automation, which is the ultimate solution of the problems. This paper emphasizes on this issue and resolves the issues and gives the valuable practical solutions. Automated techniques are the best solution for minimizing the power, reduce waste of water and increase the efficiency.















































































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Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broiler Chickens fed Varying Dietary Levels of Sundried Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Peel Meal Supplemented with Enzyme (MAXIGRAIN®)

Abstracts

An eight week feeding trial was conducted at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed varying levels of sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with enzyme (MAXIGRAIN). A total of one hundred and twenty day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks was used for this experiment. Forty chicks were randomly selected based on their average initial weights to each of the four treatment diets. (T1 to T4) with T1 serving as a control and T2 to T4 having an inclusion level of Sundried cassava peel meal (SDCPM) at 20, 40, and 60% replacement levels for maize with Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation at the rate of 100mg/kg in a complete randomized design (CRD). The chicks were brooded and fed for four weeks with commercial starter diet. Thereafter they were fed formulated finisher diets for 4 weeks. The result on the haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin was significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% sundried cassava peel meal plus maxigrain supplement (SDCPM + Maxg) with the mean value of 41.68g/dl. Red blood cell was also significantly (P<0.05) highest (7.35×106/ml) from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg). MCV and Platelet values were also significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the treatment diets with highest values of 59.58fl and 3.21×103/mm3 respectively. Neutrophil and monocyte values were significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg) with an average values of (29.02% and 4.33%). Serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed the treatment diets showed that glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the various dietary treatments with highest values of 113.68mmol/L and 116.20mmol/L recorded from birds placed on the control diet the values were within the normal range. The overall result in this study showed that sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with maxigrain can successfully be included in broiler ration up to 40% level without any adverse effect on the blood quality of broiler chickens.

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Effects of Weather Conditions on Satellite Television Cable Network Reception Quality in Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstracts

The study examined the effects of weather conditions on satellite television cable network reception quality. The ex-post facto research design was used. The primary data were generated through personal observation/monitoring of Television sets that were connected to the three prominent networks (MYTV, DSTV, and HITV) in Warri. Rainfall stations were established in each of the sample areas and were used to collect rainfall amount between the months of May and August, being rainy season in the location. Additionally, wind speed, humidity, temperature and rainfall data were collected from the archives of the Nigerian Meteorological Agencies office in Warri for 20 years. A total of fifteen (15) TV sets and fifteen modems of MYTV, DSTV and HITV satellite-cable network were utilized for this study. Results showed that there is variation in the trends of climate parameters in Warri. There is variability in the rainfall, relative humidity as well as the wind speed trends in Warri from 1991-2011. The variations in these climate attributes have effects on the durability and functionalities of satellite cable network in the area. The reception quality for MYTV reduced from 69.8% on days without rainfall to 15.4% on rainy days during the study period, while DSTV signal quality reception was also reduced by rainfall and weather effect to 20.4% on rainy days from 85.6% mean on days without rainfall. HITV signal quality reception of 33.4% on days without rainfall was reduced to 7.2% by the effect of rainfall. Rainfall impairs signal quality. Further, the result revealed that there is a significant variation in cable network reception qualities of MYTV, DSTV and HITV. This is evident from the calculated F-value of 1028.136 which was greater than the critical table-value of 19.49 at 0.05 significant level. The r value shows a correlation of 0.989 between rainfall and MYTV reception quality. However, the R² value of 0.977 shows that 97.7% variation in the quality of signal reception from MYTV is explained by other weather parameters. The r value shows a correlation of 0.994 between wind speed and DSTV reception quality. However, the R² value of 0.988 shows that the quality of the signal reception from DSTV is explained by 98.8% dependency on weather parameters. Similarly, the r value shows a correlation of 0.970 rainfall and HITV reception quality. However, the R² value of 0.942 shows that the quality of the signal reception from MYTV is explained by 94.2% dependency on weather parameters. The policy implications of the findings of this study are that adequate and well-implemented weather monitoring with remote sensing/satellite-based platforms should be captured in the national laws of Nigeria.

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Kinetic Study of Cell Growth and Production of Amylase, Cellulase and Xylanase by Bacillus subtilis Using Barley Husk as the Prime Carbon Source

Abstracts 

Bacillus spp have been widely adopted as one of the vital producers of the industrial enzymes including amylase, cellulase and xylanase. In fact, submerged fermentation (SmF) with the presence of excess water is the best suited technique for the culture of bacteria especially Bacillus that required high moisture content to grow. Pure carbon sources besides being expensive, are not economically viable for the production of enzymes. Therefore, inexpensive yet effective agricultural residues such as barley husk was used in this study.

Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the kinetic of cell growth and enzymes production of amylase, cellulase and xylanase by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 using barley husk as the main carbon source under SmF.

Methodology: In the present study, the standard inoculum size of 1 × 108 cells of B. subtilis was inoculated into culture flask containing barley husk for the production of enzymes in SmF. Samples were collected every 12 h for analysis.

Results: In this study, B. subtilis possessed the maximum specific growth rate (µmax) of 0.55 h-1 at 48 h with the maximum cell productivity of 1.98 × 1010 cells/L/h was attained during the exponential growth phase. On the other hand, the highest enzyme activity by B. subtilis obtained in this study was identified to be amylase with its activity of 1.991 U/mL, followed by xylanase activity of 1.492 U/mL and lastly cellulase with the lowest activity of 0.304 U/mL. In addition, the specific enzymes activity and productivity were also elucidated to describe the kinetic study of enzymes production. The maximum specific xylanase activity of 6.81 U/mg, followed by specific amylase activity of 6.68 U/mg and the least specific cellulase activity of 0.73 U/mg were attained from B. subtilis. In fact, cellulase productivity of 18.23 U/mL/h was found to be relatively low compared to amylase with 119.48 U/mL/h and xylanase with 89.52 U/mL/h. Cellulase production was determined as growth associated process where its maximum production was attained at the end of the exponential growth phase. On the contrary, the production of amylase and xylanase were partially growth associated due to their maximal production observed after the exponential phase of cell growth.

Conclusion: In a nutshell, B. subtilis is anticipated to be potential bacteria for the optimisation of enzymes production for amylase, cellulase and xylanase using barley husk as the sole carbon source in SmF.































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Potential of Microbial Solubilization of Rock Phosphate for Use in Sustainable Agriculture: Does Biochar Application Enhance Microbial Solubilization?

Abstracts 

The present study was carried out to investigate the strategies for microbial solubilization of Eppawala rock phosphate in Sri Lanka as an alternative to chemical acidulation by using biochar and microbial inoculants. A pot experiment was carried out in the plant house at Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale, Sri Lanka. The treatments were different combinations of field soil, biochar, mycorrhizae and Pseudomonas fluorescens with rock phosphate (RP). The experimental treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with eight replicates and the treatment means were compared by the Tukey’s test (p<0.05). The soil available phosphorus (P) and leaf P were estimated after 120 days of growing maize in pots. Total bacterial and fungal counts of the soil and mycorrhizal colonization were also estimated. Results showed that the highest available soil phosphorus was observed in biochar, mycorrhizae and P. fluorescens addition with 3% RP and highest leaf phosphorus was observed in biochar and mycorrhizae with 3% RP. The addition of biochar to the soil containing RP caused a significant increase (p<0.05) of solubilized P in soil. These results suggested that biochar can be used to enhance microbial RP solubilization and mycorrhizae inoculants to increase P uptake. Significantly high bacterial count and fungal count were observed in biochar, P. fluorescens and RP added and mycorrhizae, P. fluorescens and RP treatments respectively. Greater efficiency of P solubilizing bacteria has shown with the addition of biochar and through co-inoculation with mycorrhizae. Findings of this research increase the prospects of using biochar and P solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including P. fluorescens and mycorrhizae for RP solubilization.























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Molecular Differentiation of Five Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes Using Inter-simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

Abstracts

Knowledge of genetic diversity is one of the important tools used for genetic management of quinoa accessions for plant breeding. This research aimed to molecularly characterize five quinoa genotypes using ISSR markers to reveal genetic polymorphism and identify unique markers for each genotype. Analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) revealed that 10 ISSR primers produced 53 amplicons, out of them 33 were polymorphic and the average percentage of polymorphism was 61.83%. The number of amplicons per primer ranged from 3 (HB-13, HB-10, HB-8 and 17898A) to 10 (HB-15) with an average of 5.3 fragments/primer across the different quinoa genotypes. Data showed a total number of unique ISSR markers of 24; eleven of them were positive and 13 were negative. Using ISSR analysis, we were able to identify some unique bands associated with quinoa genotypes. The genetic similarity ranged from 49% (between Ollague and each of QL-3 and Chipaya) to 76% (between CICA-17 and CO-407). The results indicated that all the five quinoa genotypes differ from each other at the DNA level where the average of genetic similarity (GS) between them was about 59%. The dendrogram separated the quinoa genotypes into two clusters; the first cluster included two genotypes (QL-3 and Chipaya). The second cluster was divided into two groups; the first group included two genotypes (CICA-17 and CO-407) and the second group included only one genotype (Ollague).























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Optimization of Lipase Production by Bacillus megaterium

Abstracts 

Aim:  To optimize lipase production by Bacillus megaterium in submerged fermentation

Study Design: Collection of palm oil press fibres and effluent from different palm oil mills located within Ibadan Municipality. Isolation of Bacillus megaterium by cultivation in medium, submerged fermentation of palm oil press fibres and effluent by B. megaterium to produce lipase. Alteration of the cultural conditions to optimize production

Place and Duration of Study: All work were done in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, from January–December 2014

Methodology: Palm oil press fibres and effluent were collected from various palm oil mills and were used as the source of isolation of microorganism. The isolated species were identified by studying the morphological, biochemical, characteristics and 16SrNA gene sequencing. The selected species was screened for lipase production

Results: The results obtained revealed that maximum lipase production was recorded at pH 7.0 with an activity 2.13±0.15 U/ml while the best temperature that supported the optimum production of lipase was seen at 35°C with an activity of 3.30±0.10 U/ml and the best carbon and nitrogen sources were 2% glucose and 2.5% peptone concentrations showing activities of 1.83±0.05 U/ml and 2.60±0.10 U/ml respectively. An incubation period of 72 hours produced the optimum lipase with an activity of 3.26±0.05 U/ml. The separate additions of 0.3M Ca2+ and 0.3M Cl- supported maximum production of lipase.

Conclusion: This study showed that lipase production by B. megaterium can be optimized and the best conditions for optimization included pH 7.0, temperature of 35°C, 72 hours incubation period in the presence of 2% glucose, 2.5% peptone concentrations and 0.3M Ca2+ and 0.3M Cl-.























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Optimizing Growth, Seed Yield and Quality of Soybean (Glycine max L.) Plant Using Growth Substances

Abstracts 

Aims: It is become necessary to reduce the gap between the demand and supply of edible oil and protein. So, the aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of foliar application with humic acid, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol on some morphological, anatomical and seed yield characteristics, as well as on some biochemical constituents of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed for maximizing its growth, yield and nutritional value.

Methodology: A 2 year field trial was carried out during 2015 and 2016 at the Faculty of Agriculture Experiment Station, Benha University, Egypt . Soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. Giza 111 seeds were sown into plots (each plot unit about 3.5 m long and 3.0 m wide) in clay loam soil. A total of six treatments of humic acid, salyclic acid, and paclobutrazol were foliarly applied: humic acid at 2.5 and 5.0 gl-1, salicylic acid at 50 and 100 mgl-1, paclobutrazol at 10 and 20 mgl-1 and Control in a 3 randomized complete blocks.

Results: All rates of humic acid, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol had a significant effect on soybean morphological characters during the 2 years. The treatment set of 10 mgl-1 paclobutrazol, 5 gl-1 humic acid, and 100 mgl-1 salicylic acid resulted in relatively higher means for most vegetative growth characters compared to both the other 3 and the Control treatments. Despite variations among the 6 rates effects, all enhanced chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. This positive response extended to include the contents of soybean shoot endogenous phytohormones.  Soybean yield components and yield were significantly improved due to applying these 3 growth substances using these current rates, this in addition to their positive effect on N P K content, crude protein, total carbohydrates and percentage total lipids in soybean seed yield.  Under the conditions of this trial, either of 10 mgl-1paclobutrazol, 5 gl-1 humic acid, or 100 mgl-1 salicylic acid proved useful to improve soybean growth and yield, yet more further research deem necessary to include more expanded set of rates to be assessed under other perspectives.















































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Assessment of Probiotics in Infant Formula and Cereal Based Baby Foods Containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12– Update 2014

Abstracts 

“Assessment of benefits and risks of probiotics in processed cereal-based baby foods supplemented Bifidobacteriumn lactis Bb12” from 2010 answered a request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority focusing on the age groups 4-6 months, 6-12 months and 1-3 years. However, the use of infant formula intended for newborns, supplemented with this probiotic, was neither asked by the NFSA nor assessed by VKM.

The notifier of the baby foods intended for infants and small children has provided information on three different cereal-based products intended for age-groups over 4 months and one infant formula intended for newborns, all supplemented with B. lactis. In its letter the company concludes that their products supplemented with B. lactis do not pose any health and safety risk.

Regarding health effect, we have already mentioned in our assessment (Halvorsen et al. 2010) that: “It is not the mandate of this report to evaluate the health claims related to the products as these health claims are assessed by EFSA.”

Our main conclusions regarding safety were as follows:















































“No serious adverse events are reported, but neither has the effect of long-term intake of a single bacterial strain been studied. Furthermore, cereals supplemented with B. lactis Bb12 intended for infants and toddlers have not been studied regarding safety. We are not aware of any in vivo studies explicitly concerning the ability of B. lactis Bb12 to influence gene expression of epithelial cells”.

Furthermore, we were concerned regarding presence of antibiotic resistance gene against tetracycline (tetW) in the B. lactis Bb12. In the answer to the question from NFSA regarding antibiotic resistance gene in L. lactis Bb12, we concluded that:

“Consumption of probiotic microororganism B. lactis Bb12 that harbour gene encoding resistance against tetracycline (tetW) may increase the risk of the transfer of such genes to the resident microbiota and pathogenic bacteria and hence increase development of bacterial resistance. High similarity has been observed between tetW gene in bacteria of human and environment origin and B. lactis Bb12. This suggests the spread of tetracycline resistance gene (tetW) between bacteria of various origins. However, the transfer of tetracycline resistance gene (tetW) to other bacteria as a consequence of consumption of Bb12 has not been studied.”

As we have already mentioned in our assessment (Halvorsen et al. 2010). “It is important to note that the infant’s diet comprises a restricted variety of foods, which often are taken several times a day during a period of life when a stable intestinal flora is not yet established. The establishment of a normal intestinal microbiota takes at least two years and thus the intake of large numbers of probiotic bacteria in monoculture during the first years of life may greatly influence this process.”

According to the “Guideline for evaluation of probiotics in food” (FAO/WHO 2002): ‘‘….the onus is on the producer to prove that any given probiotic strain is not a significant risk with regard to transferable antibiotic resistance or other opportunistic virulence properties.”

The tet(W) gene in Bifidobacterium seems to be integrated in the chromosome and its surrounding regions vary depending on the strain, but very often the gene is flanked by transposase target sequences or genes coding for transposase, an enzyme that catalyzes the movement of DNA fragments between different locations by recognizing specific target sequences, suggesting that, under adequate conditions, the gene could be transferred (Gueimonde et al. 2013). The presence of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), flanked by a putative transposase gene in B. animalis subsp. lactis was also confirmed in other strains of Bifidobacterium than Bb12 (Stahl & Barrangou 2012).

Among the data provided by the notifier, we could not identify any new studies regarding the above mentioned concerns.

As already mentioned, our assessment from 2010 did not include probiotic-supplemented infant formula intended for use by newborns. It seems likely that the same concerns as for the cereal-based products will be valid in this age group and possibly of even greater importance.

Among the literature provided by the notifier was also the position paper from 2011 of the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition (ESPGHAN 2011). Among their general conclusions are:

• (Conclusion 1): “For healthy infants, the available scientific data suggest that the administration of currently evaluated probiotic-supplemented formula to healthy infants does not raise safety concerns with regard to growth and adverse effects”.

But none the less:

• (Conclusion 5): “In general, there is a lack of data on the long-term effects of the administration of formula supplemented with probiotics. Such data would be of particular importance if the effects persisted after the administration of the probiotics has ceased.”

And concludes lastly;

• (Conclusion 6): “Considering the above, the Committee does not recommend the routine use of probiotic-supplemented formula in infants.”

Our view is in accordance with these conclusions.















































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Effect of Urea and Compost Amendments on Soil Microbial Activities and Chemical Properties

Abstracts 

A pot experiment was conducted in the screenhouse of the College of Plant Science and Crop Production, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria to investigate the effect of urea and compost on maize (Zea mays L.), soil microbial activities and chemical properties. The experiment consisted of two rates of urea (0, 0.25 t/ha), and three rates of compost (0, 10 and 20 tonnes per hectares). Data were collected on the following parameters: Microbial N, Microbial biomass C, Microbial biomass P, Percentage nitrogen, Microbial respiration, C/N ratio, protease, urease, cellulase, plant height, stem girth and number of leaves. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The plants in pots amended with urea had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) plant height, leaf area stem girth, fresh and dry root weight, fresh and dry shoot weight and soils amended with urea had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) microbial biomass (P), microbial respiration, phosphorus, organic carbon, protease, urease and cellulase. Plants amended with compost had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) plant height, leaf area number of leaves, fresh and dry root weight, fresh and dry shoot weight, urease, and cellulose. Compost did not have significant effect on stem girth. Similarly, soils amended with compost had significantly higher microbial biomass (N, P, and C), microbial respiration, phosphorus and organic carbon. Interaction of compost control (0 t/h) and urea was significantly lower that urea + 10 t/h compost and urea + 20 t/h for urease, protease, cellulose, phosphorous and organic carbon. It was however insignificant in the other treatments. Similarly, absolute control was significantly less than non urea + 10 t/h and non-urea + 20 t/h in plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, microbial respiration, urease, cellulose, phosphorus and organic carbon while the others were insignificant. Conclusively, integration of urea fertilizers with organic manures can be used with optimum rates to improve crop productivity on sustainable basis. However, this study will be useful in maintaining sustainable nutrient management programs in future to improve crop productivity with high efficiency and minimum nutrient loss.

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Proteolytic Activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UEF01 Endophytic to Carnivorous Plant Utricularia exoleta R. Br.















































Abstracts

Aims: The endosphere of the carnivorous plant Utricularia exoleta R. Br. represents a unique niche for the study of microbial diversity. This study was aimed at to isolate and enumerate the protease producing potential of bacteria endophytic to U. exoleta R. Br.

Study Design: Extracellular proteolytic activity of the cell-free culture filtrate of the bacterial endophyte was determined following standard colorimetic assay using casein as the substrate.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta during September 2015 and March 2016.

Methodology: A total of 36 phenotypically distinguishable bacteria endophytic to leaf, stem, bladder and fruit of U. exoleta were isolated and evaluated for protease production. The best protease producing isolate, UEF01 was selected, characterized and the conditions for protease activity were optimized.

Results: The selected isolate was characterized following morphological, physio-biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UEF01 (GenBank Accession No. KX816572). The crude protease of the cell-free culture filtrate of UEF01 was maximum at 35°[U1] C, pH 9 with 1.5% (w/v) casein. The enzyme appeared to be thermolabile with loss of >80% activity at 70°C (15 min incubation). Kinetic studies indicated the Km and Vmax values as 9.21 mg/ml and 71.43 U/mg of protein respectively. The enzyme was sensitive to Na and Mn ions as well as some selective protease inhibitors such as phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride, β-mercaptoethanol, and EDTA.

Conclusion: This proteolytic study will help in understanding the role of endophytes in digestion of prey within the bladders of the carnivorous plants.

 

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Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Treating Livestock among the Fulani People of Mararaba -Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstracts 

Aim: The study was undertaken to document some medicinal plants used in treating livestock among the Fulani people of Marraba-Mubi.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant samples were collected from Mararaba-Mubi, November 2015- February 2016.

Methodology: All the plant samples collected were dried at room temperature and milled to a coarse powder. Aqueous extraction of the samples was carried out at room temperature. These extracts were phytochemically screened qualitatively for the presence of alkaloid, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and Phenols using standard procedures.

Results: A total of 25 species of plants belonging to 18 families were collected in which Fabaceae represented 20.0% (5 species), Meliaceae, Malvaceae and Alliaceae 8.0% (2 species/family) respectively. The plant parts mostly used were the leaves 66.67% and the least being the roots 7.41%. The qualitative phytochemical screening of active constituent of the plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponin, glycosides, terpenoids and phenols. The survey also reveals that some plants have multiple medicinal uses, while some were being used to cure only one disease. The major threats in the study area were found to be agricultural activities, cutting down of trees for fuel and natural factors.

Conclusion: Mararaba Mubi is relatively rich in medicinal plant knowledge and practice. Therefore, conservation of medicinal plants, documentation and promotion of indigenous knowledge by encouraging research activities is required in the study area.

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Incidence of Root-knot Nematodes in Some Selected Vegetable Crops in Nukkai Irrigation Field Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria

Abstracts 

A study to determine the incidence of root-knot nematode (Melodogyne spp) in some selected vegetables was conducted in Nukkai Irrigation Field of Jalingo, Nigeria. Samples of Okra (Hibiscus esculentus), Spinach (Amaranthus spp) and Sorrel (Hisbiscus sabdariffa) were collected at 2-weeks old and at maturity (flowering stage). Their roots were cut off and nematodes (Melodogyne spp) were extracted using the Baermann method and identified using the female perineal pattern manual. The results showed that Melodogyne spp are incident in the study area as 248 (34.44%) stands out of the 720 stands studied were found to be infested by root-knot nematode. The results also showed that two Melodogyne spp, M.  javanica and M. incognita were discovered, and had a total number of 535 individuals. M. javanica (345) were predominantly higher than M. incognita (190). In all stages of sampling, Hibiscus esculentus proved to be more susceptible to infestion, followed by Amarantus spp while the least infested was Hibiscus sabdariffa and M. javanica appeared to be more abundant than M. incognita in the study area.































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Yield and Quality Performance of Carrot under Different Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Sources with Mulching Options

Abstracts 

 An experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, Bangladesh to find out the effects of mulch and different manures and fertilizers on the yield components and quality of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Twelve treatment combinations were evaluated in two factors Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different doses of manures and fertilizers viz. F0 = Control, F1 = Cowdung (CD) @ 10 t ha-1, F2 = Mustard Oil Cake (MOC) @ 0.25 t ha-1, F3 = Cowdung (CD) @ 5.0 t ha-1 + Mustard Oil Cake (MOC) @ 0.125 t ha-1, F4 = Urea @ 326.08 kg ha-1 + Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) @ 93.75 kg ha-1 + Muriate of Potash (MoP) @ 200 kg ha-1 and F5 = Cowdung (CD) @ 5 t ha-1 + Urea @ 163.04 kg ha-1 + Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) @ 46.87 kg ha-1 + Muriate of Potash (MoP) @ 100 kg ha-1 were applied under mulched (M1) and non-mulched (M0) conditions. Results from our study revealed that maximum fresh weight (3.57 kg plot-1), individual root weight (101.90 g), root length (14.64 cm), root diameter (3.27 cm), total yield (23.78 t ha-1), marketable yield (20.53 t ha-1) and beta-carotene content (8.78 mg 100-1 g) were recorded from F5 treatment. The mulching also had a significantly positive effect on maximizing the root yield components as well as beta-carotene contents over non-mulched treatment. On the other hand, the interaction effect of M1F5 performed superior in producing yield components and beta-carotene content of root compared to other combinations. The highest marketable yield (25.10 t ha-1) along with best economic gross return (TK. 2,47,167 ha-1) and the benefit-cost ratio (2.91) were also noted from M1F5. It was concluded that organic and inorganic sources of nutrients along with mulch effectively increase the carrot yield than the sole application of higher doses of manures and fertilizers.































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The Martyrdom of St. Julia: On Microbial Strategies to Evade the Immune System























Abstracts
 

Bacteria and viruses use an array of evasion mechanisms to escape from the host immune system. Due to antigenic variation, pathogenic micro-organisms can escape the immune system. Micro-organisms can occur in different types, such as the 97 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Influenza viruses change their antigenic make-up, in particular, the hemagglutinin molecule by antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Trypanosomes and malaria parasites use DNA programmed expression of highly variable surface antigens. Micro-organisms can also produce proteins that degrade (IgA protease) or inactivate antibody molecules (protein A and protein G). Some bacteria and viruses produce proteins that inhibit complement activation. Virus can become invisible for recognition by T-lymphocytes by interference with antigen presentation. Antiviral immunity can be suppressed by viral homologues of cytokines and cytokine receptors and other proteins. Despite the extensive immune evasion strategies used by viruses, bacteria and other micro-organisms, the immune system in most cases is ultimately able to control an infection.























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Evaluation of Differential Oral Cell-specific Responses to the E-cigarette Component Nicotine

Abstracts 

Objectives: The recent introduction of electronic cigarettes (EC) or e-cigarettes, also known as the electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD), has been promoted as a safer alternative to tobacco products and smoking. Many groups have advocated for the use of ECs or ENDDs as a tool to reduce carcinogenic potential, while simultaneously promoting strategies and protocols for smoking and nicotine cessation. Based upon this information, the main objective of this study was to determine the biological effects of the most basic aerosol component of all ECs and ENDDs (nicotine) on cells and tissues specifically derived from the oral cavity. The working hypothesis was that no discernable effects would be apparent at the concentrations typically associated with EC and ENDD use.

Experimental Methods: In brief, oral cell lines were obtained, which included normal, non-cancerous Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGF-1) and two oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC25, CAL27). Cells were exposed to nicotine at concentrations equivalent to those found in e-cigarette mixtures (5.77 x 10-5 M) for five day proliferation and viability assays.

Results: The results of this study strongly suggest that nicotine may have negative effects on both cellular viability and cellular proliferation among cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Moreover, these effects appear to become more pronounced over time, suggesting that short-term exposure to vaping solutions comprised of water with small amounts of nicotine may be sufficient to induce these effects – at least in this experimental or in vitro setting.

Conclusions: In summary, these data provide further evidence that nicotine administration may present significant risks to cell viability and growth over time. In addition, this study demonstrated that these effects were evident in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells – a finding that may suggest more research in this area is needed to determine the mechanisms that might be shared between these differing cell types, which may also suggest more caution may be needed when advertising or marketing ECs or ENDDs are low- or no-risk alternatives to cigarette smoking.































K
eywords : Nicotine; e-cigarette; oral response.















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A Rare Reason of Intestinal Obstruction: Abdominal Cocoon Due to Tuberculosis

Abstracts

The abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. There are many causes in the etiology, tuberculosis is one of them. The abdominal cocoon is treated conservatively or surgically according to the degree of intestinal obstruction and etiology. For this reason, it is important to diagnose before treatment. Herein, We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abominal tuberculosis.

Keywords : İntestinal obstruction; abdominal cocoon; tuberculosis; sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.























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Influence of Foliar Boron Application on Ginning Traits, Fiber and Seed Quality of Cotton























Abstracts

The experiment was conducted at Central Cotton Research Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur during cotton growing season of 2009-2010. Cotton variety cv. CB-10 was used under experiment. Eight levels of boron (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75, g L-1 water) were sprayed at reproductive stage of cotton as treatment. The design of the experiment was randomized completely block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data on ginning, fiber and seed quality were taken under present experiment. Result revealed that foliar application of boron has a significant influence on different traits of cotton. The highest (40.52%) ginning out turn (GOT) was recorded at the foliar application of B at 1.00 g B L-1 whereas the lowest (39.09%) ginning out turn was observed in case of foliar B application of 1.75 g B L-1 water. The highest lint yield (0.47 t ha-1) was obtained in 1.00 g B L-1 water than that of control. The highest germination (95.58%) was recorded at 1.00 g B L-1 water than that of control. Foliar boron fertilizer increased seed oil and protein content but it was insignificant. Numerically, the highest oil content (19.06%) was found at 1.25 g B L-1 water and protein (23.75%) at 1.75 g B L-1 water foliar spray.

Keywords : Cotton; ginning; lint; fiber; seed oil; seed protein and germination.























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Spacial Variability of Balanced Indexes of Kenworthy(BIK) for Macro and Micronutrients on the Coffee Canephora

Abstracts 

The nutritional monitoring of coffee is essential for the construction and maintenance of efficient production systems since it brings several contributions to coffee cultivation and allows to consider the spatial variation present in the productions. The objective of this paper was to analyze and describe the spatial behavior of the coffee nutritional status based on the Balanced Indexes of Kenworthy (BIK). The experiment in southern Espírito Santo, in an area planted with seminal conilon coffee (Lat 20°37’31’’S e 41°05’22’’W). 140 points were georeferenced within a coffee crop, each sampling point contained three plants. Leaf samples were analyzed in order to determine levels of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu), and the BIK it was determined for all nutrients. The indexes and the yield (Prod) were analyzed by means of geostatistics. The diagnosis presented in this study indicated a higher nutritional limitation due to the deficiency for K, Zn, Fe and B for excess for Cu, showing the nutritional imbalance of the crop. With the exception of BIK for P, all variables presented spatial dependence adjusted to the spherical and exponential models.

Keywords : Coffea canephora; foliar analysis; nutritional balance; DRIS; nutrients.























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Enzymatic and Nutritive Evaluation of Zinc and Organic Fertilization on Field Maize Yields in Islamabad - Pakistan

Abstracts 

Low fertility and organic matter contents in soil limit the nutrient bio-availability for crops, potentially leading to poor nutrition in the animals and human beings that consume those crops. This field study on maize production employed integration of organic and chemical fertilizers to determine their impact on plant enzymatic activities in relation to crop production, and nutrient dynamics in plants and soil. The treatments compared were: control (no application of N from any source); 100% N from fertilizer (FN); 75% FN + 25% N from organic manure (ON); and 50% FN + 50% ON. Further, all these treatments were superimposed by three levels of zinc (Zn) fertilizer, viz., 0, 4, 8 kg Zn ha-1.Conjunctive use of FN and ON with the ratio of 75+25 along with Zn application at the rate of 4 kg ha-1rendered the highest maize grain yield as compared to sole N application from chemical fertilizer. Similarly, enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly affected with combined use of N and Zn. Nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc contents in diagnostic leaves of maize were also higher in organically substituted treatments.

Keywords : Nutrient deficiencies; chemical nitrogen fertilizer; organic manure; conjunctive use; nitrate reductase; superoxide dismutase.









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Pollution Status of Heavy Metals in Spent Oil-Contaminated Soil in Gwagwalada

Abstracts 

The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a major target for drug development. Inhibition of this enzyme has been one of the primary therapeutic strategies in suppressing the replication of HIV-1. A series of 2-amino-6-arylsulfonylbenzonitrile derivatives were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Very recently, we proposed the use of substituent electronic descriptors (SED) instead of the electronic descriptors of whole molecules as new and expedite source of electronic descriptors. In this study, we used SED parameters in QSAR modeling of anti HIV-1 activity of 6-arylsulfonylbenzonitrile derivatives. In SED methodology produces a vector of electronic descriptors for each substituent and thus a matrix of SED is generated for each molecule. Consequently, a three-dimensional array is obtained by staking the data matrices of different molecules beside each other. As a novel multiway data analysis method, molecular maps of atom-level properties (MOLMAP) approach was also used to transfer a three-dimensional array of SED descriptors into new two-dimensional parameters using Kohonen network, following by genetic algorithm-based partial least square(GA-PLS) to connect a quantitative relationship between the Kohonen scores and biological activity.In unfolding data, HOMO1, HOMOB1, SOFB1 and EPHA4 represent the most important indices on QSAR equation derived by PLS analysis. Accurate QSAR models were obtained by both approaches. The resulted GA-PLS model of MOLMAP approach possessed high statistical quality r2= 0.83 and q2=0.70. It could explain and predict about 70% of variances in the anti-HIV1 inhibitory activity of the studied molecules. However, the superiority of three-way analysis of SED parameters based on MOLMAP approach with respect to simple unfolding was obtained.























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Microalbuminuria as a Marker of Cardiovascular Risks in Egyptian Hypertensive Patients

Abstracts 

Hypertension (HTN) is one of the modifiable atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors, and management of HTN may reduce the incidence of AF.  Microalbuminuria (MAU) increases cardiovascular risk in hypertension.

Aim of the Study: To determine the association of microalbuminuria in Egyptian hypertensive patients and its relationship with AF.

Patients and Methods: Five hundred hypertensive patients without a history of pre-existing kidney diseases participated in this study. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on demographics, lifestyle, and family history of cardiovascular and kidney disease, and spot morning urine samples were collected for albuminuria estimation.

Results: A total of 500 Egyptian hypertensive patients, aged 47 ± 7.3 years were enrolled in this study. Two hundred and ninety three were males and 207 were females. The mean duration of hypertension was 5.6 ± 2.7 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 ± 2.4 kg/m2. There were 354 (70.8%) patients whose BP well controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), while 146 (29.2%) patients were not controlled. 249 (49.8%) patients had MAU. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, lower glomerular filtration rates, higher mean BP, higher heart rates and ejection fraction less than 50% had a significant effect on prevalence of MAU with an odds ratio > 1 and P value < 0.05. Two hundred patients had AF, 173 (86.5%) of them had MAU. There was a positive correlation between MAU and AF and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with P value < 0.05.

Conclusion and Recommendation: Screening for albuminuria may be useful in early risk assessment of cardiovascular disease in Egyptian hypertensive patients, identification of a patient at risk of CV events provides an opportunity for early treatment, to slow the progression of disease.































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In vitro Comparison of Metronidazole and Tinidazole Activity against Trichomonas vaginalis Strains in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Abstracts 

This study investigated the in vitro comparison of metronidazole and tinidazole activity against Trichomonas vaginalis strains from internally displaced women in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Materials and Methodology: high vaginal swab samples were collected from (41) T. vaginalis positive women who consented for the study was cultured and isolated. The results were analyzed using SPSS statistics version 20.0. Results recorded (53) T. vaginalis strains for metronidazole with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range from 0.4 - 25 μg/ml and low-level resistance strains to metronidazole observed 3.8% at 25.0 μg/ml with minimum latent concentration (MLC) ≥ 50.0 μg/ml. Forty-nine (49) T. vaginalis strains were observed on the MIC range from 0.4 µg/ml to 12.5 µg/ml, indicating that all strain isolates were susceptible to tinidazole at above 12.5 μg/ml MLC. This study showed in vitro low resistance to metronidazole in a few T. vaginalis strains, while all the tested isolates were sensitive to tinidazole.























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Science Domain journals follow ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’























Science Domain journals are determined to promote integrity in research publication. ScienceDomain journals follow the guidelines, given by COPE for any publication disputes (http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy).























Publication charge of Science Domain international journals is extremely low compared to other open access publishers. It is commendable that even at such low cost they are providing transparent OPEN Peer review and post-publication peer review, DOI, permanent digital Archiving, wide indexing, etc.























Science Domain journals follow the guidelines regarding ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’, established by the COPE, the DOAJ, the OASPA. Science Domain journals additionally publicly publish a ‘self-compliance report’ for public and scholarly scrutiny (http://sciencedomain.org/journal/32/odc-compliance). 























Since inception, this publisher is making constant efforts to promote integrity and transparency. It is completely baseless libel that SCIENCE DOMAIN international is a predatory publisher, as no other publisher put these much efforts to adhere to best publishing practices. 















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Sciencedomain International has taken a huge leap forward towards success in the year 2015

Since the beginning in 2011, Sciencedomain International has successfully delivered a myriad of journals to the science enthusiasts. They started with only 18 journals but in 2015, they have created an extensive portfolio of total 35 journals. As the competition is fierce in the journal publication industry, a number of journals from different publishers were unable to leave their mark in the industry. On the contrary, Sciencedomain International has taken a huge leap forward towards success in the year 2015 by controlling 0.27% of the global publishing market. Their growth rate is remarkable, and it is reflected from their 0.01% to 0.14% growth in the first four years of their operation. This growth rate is far more great than some other leading OA publishers in the industry. Sciencedomain International really appreciates everyone's support to enable them reach at this current position in world publication market.   

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Academicians from world famous universities published their valuable papers with Sciencedomain journals

It has been noted that many academicians from world famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc have published their valuable papers with Sciencedomain journals. Please see gere for some proof (http://www.sciencedomain.org/page.php?id=author-profiles). Most probably these academicians have trusted Sciencedomain International due to transparent policies that include the standards of peer review process (Advanced Open Peer review), good indexing coverage, high editorial benchmarks, and many more. One must go through the terms and conditions of submission and publication policies in order to have a clear idea about the working style of this publisher. This publisher has always focused on providing readers with relevant information without any hassle. 























As per a report (Link) of one of the world’s most famous journal (Science), one of the journal of Sciencedomain (British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research) passed a stringent test of quality of Peer review by rejecting a fake article (Link1Link2Link3). This is a verifiable proof of the dedication and hard-work of the peer reviewers and editors to maintain the high standard of journals. It was reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected the fake article after substantial peer review. Sciencedomain’s journal was among these few successful journals along with industry leaders like PLoS One, Hindawi, etc. It is imperative that the result of this experiment also proved the efficacy of transparent Advanced OPEN peer review and ‘post publication’ peer review system.

All these examples clearly stand against the working principle of some predatory publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.

Reference: Who's Afraid of Peer Review? Science, 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6154 pp. 60-65, DOI: 10.1126/science.342.6154.60

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Science Domain journals are attracting huge visitors

Publication charge of Science Domain international journals is extremely low compared to other open access publishers who often charge several hundred or thousands of dollars from authors. It is commendable that even at such low cost they are providing excellent and transparent OPEN Peer review service, DOI, permanent digital Archiving, wide indexing, etc. Papers published in Science Domain journals are attracting huge visitors as more than two millions visitors visited their journals with more than 7.9 million page view (see: http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/publication-and-site-statistics-up-to-sept-2015). It has attracted more than 22 thousands manuscript submission and published more than ten thousands papers. It is really an exciting record for any new publisher. Science Domain international journal Web sites provide the ability for users to comment on articles to facilitate community evaluation and discourse around published articles. Comment section is mainly dedicated to promote "Post-publication peer review". Therefore, all Science Domain international journals strictly follow 'pre-publication OPEN peer review' and strongly encourage "Post-publication peer review".  Science Domain international journals follow transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system (Detailed general information is available in this linkhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_peer_review). High quality manuscripts are peer-reviewed by minimum two peers of the same field. OPEN peer review system provides the provision to reveal the identities of the authors and reviewers to each other during review process. In order to add transparency further, details of all reviewers and academic editors are published in the first page of every published paper (in the Article Information section: see example). As a final step to provide highest level transparency in the process, all review comments, authors' feedbacks, all versions of the manuscript and editorial comments are published (along with date) with the paper in 'Review History' link (See example 1example 2example 3, etc). This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. 
































Science Domain journals are determined to promote integrity in research publication. Science Domain journals follow the guidelines, given by COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS (COPE) for any publication disputes, authorship disputes, etc. Please see following three pages to know the related polices followed by SDI journal.

a. General Editorial policy: http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy

b. Plagiarism related policy: http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy#SDI-plagiarism-policy

c. Correction and retraction policy is available here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy#SDI_Correction_and_retraction_policy

 

Examples of some cases are presented below. Detailed investigation reports and communications are digitally archived. 

1. Example 1 (http://sciencedomain.org/abstract/8409)

2. Example 2 (http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/8741)

3. Example 3 (http://sciencedomain.org/abstract/6115)

4. Example 4 (http://sciencedomain.org/abstract/6118)

Science Domain journals follow the excellent guidelines regarding ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’, established by the Committee on Publication Ethics, the Directory of Open Access Journals, the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association and the World Association of Medical Editors. Science Domain journals sincerely thank OASPA-DOAJ-COPE-WAME for this great effort. Science Domain journals additionally publicly publish a ‘self-compliance report’ for public and scholarly scrutiny. Science Domain journals heartily welcome any valuable feedback to improve (see here: http://sciencedomain.org/journal/32/odc-compliance).

Since inception, this publisher is making constant efforts to promote integrity and transparency. It is completely baseless libel that SCIENCE DOMAIN international is a predatory publisher, as no other publisher put these much efforts to adhere to best publishing practices.

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SCIENCE DOMAIN international providing readers free access to high quality journals through internet

If you are searching for a reliable publisher, where you can find free journals on different topics of science, medicine and technology, then you can completely depend upon SCIENCE DOMAIN international. They have earned a good brand name in the industry by providing readers free access to high quality journals through internet. These journals behave as a prominent link between the scholars of science, technology, etc. and the enthusiasts, who want to attain in-depth knowledge through the published research work and journals.

It seems that authors and researchers are happy with the transparent peer review service provided this publisher. High quality peer review should attract appreciation from all authors, irrespective of the nature of the review decision (i.e. Acceptance or Rejection of manuscript). Some of the testimonials are available here: http://www.sciencedomain.org/page/authors-speak. It is also mention worthy that this publisher provide the proof/web link beside every testimonial. As the email IDs of the authors are available in the proof, anybody can cross-check the authenticity. It is a good practice indeed.

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Science Domain International: an Open Peer Reviewed Journal

Science Domain International is a new and promising publisher of STM journals from India. The transparent and robust “Open Peer Review” model of SDI journals is very appreciable and significant for the academic community. They publish the entire Review History along with the manuscripts after completion of review process depending on the expert reviewers’ suggestions and recommendations. In 2013 an article published in famous Science journal (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full), which reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected a fake article after substantial peer review. Science Domain International journal was among these few successful journals. It also provides wide indexing coverage and provides public proof for every claim of indexing. It also renders the service of perpetual archiving with Portico, DOI for every article, plagiarism checking for each submission, etc. Their remarkable contributions are recognized by many academic organizations as mentioned below:

1. Science Domain International is a voting member of Crossref

(Please see here: http://www.crossref.org/01company/06publishers.html). CrossRef is an association of scholarly publishers that develops shared infrastructure to support more effective scholarly communications. Famous publishers like Elsevier, Nature, Springer, etc are also voting members of crossref.

2. Many respected indexing organizations indexed our journals after strict evaluation. Quality and authenticity of any journal is evaluated by these official organizations. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/abstracting-indexing

3. Many scientists from world famous universities like Harvard, Stanford, Cambridge, etc kept faith on the quality of our journals and published their valuable papers with us. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/author-profiles

4. We publish peer review reports of all published papers. This transparent OPEN peer review process is considered most authentic and robust by many researchers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_peer_review).

5. Famous Science journal (IF: 31) report confirmed the high standard of Science Domain International  journal. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/science-if-31-report-confirmed-the-high-standard-of-sdi-journal

6. Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland Govt. included Science Domain International  journals in its official report. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/polish-ministry-of-science-and-higher-education-included-18-sdi-journals-in-its-official-report-of-2013

7. Index Medicus (under World Health organization) selected our journals http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/index-medicus-selected-15-sdi-journals

8. Science Domain International is now member of PORTICO for Permanent Digital Archiving of SDI journals

9. US National Library of Medicine (NLM) Catalog included Science Domain International journals please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/abstracting-indexing

As a result of these achievements, many scientists from world’s famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc. published their scientific works with Science Domain journals. All these examples clearly indicates their stand against the working principle of some fake publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.































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Introduction

The Open Access (OA) movement started in 1960s and gained momentum in the 1990s with the advent of internet and digital archiving, etc. It was reported that the world famous physicist Leó Szilárd was one of the supporter of the basic principle of OA. Once in the 1940s, he suggested lightly that at the beginning of the career each scientist should be issued with 100 vouchers to pay for his papers. It is now possible to publish a scholarly article and also make it instantly accessible anywhere in the world where there are computers and internet connections or any other digital data access system. This social movement is mainly carried out by academia, dedicated to the principle of open access to information without any financial barrier to the reader/user, specially from the developing and under-developed countries. This movement slowly became the subject of much discussion among researchers, academics, librarians, university administrators, funding agencies, government officials, commercial publishers, and learned-society publishers.

Different Initiatives

In 1997, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) made Medline, the most comprehensive index to medical literature on the planet, freely available in the form of PubMed. Usage of this database increased a hundredfold when it became free, strongly suggesting that prior limits on usage were impacted by lack of access. While indexes are not the main focus of the open access movement, free Medline is important in that it opened up a whole new form of use of scientific literature - by the public, not just professionals. In 2001, 34,000 scholars around the world signed "An Open Letter to Scientific Publishers", calling for "the establishment of an online public library that would provide the full contents of the published record of research and scholarly discourse in medicine and the life sciences in a freely accessible, fully searchable, interlinked form". In 2002, the Open Society Institute launched the Budapest Open Access Initiative. In 2003, the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities was drafted and the World Summit on the Information Society included open access in its Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action. In 2006, a Federal Research Public Access Act was introduced in US Congress by senators John Cornyn and Joe Lieberman. In November 27, 2009, the Manchester Manifesto came as an initiative from philosopher John Harris, Nobel-winning biologist Sir John Sulston, and 48 others from the Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation (iSEI) at The University of Manchester.

Current status

OA movement is slowly becoming one of the strongest movements in scholarly publication and information sharing history. For example, in 2007, MIT OpenCourseWare, an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to put all of the educational materials from their undergraduate and graduate level courses online, hit a monthly traffic record of over 2 million visits. Since 2003 efforts have been focused on open access mandating by the funders of research: governments, research funding agencies, and universities. Many countries, funders, universities and other organizations have now either made commitments to open access, or are in the process of reviewing their policies and procedures, with a view to opening up access to results of the research they are responsible for. Harvard University through the Harvard Open-Access Publishing Equity (HOPE) provides funds for the reimbursement of reasonable article processing fees for articles authored or co-authored by Harvard researchers published in eligible open-access journals. Stanford university, MIT, York university, Boston university, Duke university, University College London, etc are also supporting OA movement. As per SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition), only in US more than 120 presidents, provosts, and chancellors of many large, small, public, and private U.S. universities and colleges have gone on record in support of the Federal Research Public Access Act (2009-2010 introduction) as of July 19, 2010. SPARC international currently have over 800 institutions in North America, Europe, Japan, China and Australia.

Source: All data of this page have been compiled from different internet sources, which are available in public domain.

Disclaimer: This page is created for general awareness about OA movement.

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Science Domain International is a new and promising publisher of STM journals from India. It is noteworthy that this publisher follows Transparent and robust “Open peer review” model. In 2013 an article published in famous Science journal (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full), which reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected a fake article after substantial peer review. Sciencedomain’s journal was among these few successful journals. It also provides wide indexing coverage and provides public proof for every claim of indexing. It also renders the service of perpetual archiving with Portico, DOI for every article, plagiarism checking for each submission, etc. Many scientists from world famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc published with Science Domain journals. All these examples clearly stand against the working principle of some predatory publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.

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