International Scientific Research Journal


Opportunities and Constraints in Ghana’s Informal Sector (A Case Study of Ho Township)




Aims: To determine the opportunities, and constraints in Ghana’s informal sector by examining the structure of the informal sector, identifying the factors influencing people to work in the sector and to determine the salient factors constraining the growth of the informal sector.

Study Design: A descriptive research design

Place and Duration of Study: Ho Municipal, Volta Region Ghana, between September 2014 and June 2015.

Methodology: This study employed both probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling techniques to select 310 informal sector workers in Ho township, a self-administered close-ended questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was the main statistical tool used in the study.

Results: The EFA showed that five salient factors accounted for about 70.2% of the total variation in the 12 original constraining indicators, when it comes to the structure, about 71% of businesses are practiced on a microscale sole proprietorship level.

Conclusion: Evidence from the study suggests that; The desire to make more money and the freedom associated with being in the informal sector are the most alluring opportunities found to motivate people to work in the sector. Five main challenges are encountered by workers in Ghana’s informal sector, and they are; lack of resources and business viability, constraining government regulations/policies, inadequate entrepreneurial skills, lack of start-up capital and lack of job security.


Keywords :

Informal sector; structure; opportunities, constraints.

The Dynamics of Oil Prices in the Nigerian Construction and Economic Growth




Aims: The continuous reverberation of unstable global oil price change has caused this study to examine the effect of oil price fluctuation on the construction and economic growths in Nigeria.

Study Design: Data for the analysis were extracted from different National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) publications on the construction sector and economy (GDP); and OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin 2017 and BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2017 on oil price from 1981 to 2016.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in Nigeria between October 2017 and February 2018.

Methodology: The study applied different econometric techniques including the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), the generalized least squares (GLS) regression (DF-GLS), and the Phillips-Perron (PP)  for unit root test; Johansen’s cointegration test and Error Correction Model (ECM) for long-run equilibrium relationship; Granger causality test for direction of causation or influence; as well as carrying different validation tests.

Results: It was found that oil price fluctuation does not have any causal influence on the construction growth nor economic growth; rather it is only the economic growth that influences the construction growth without feedback. It further revealed the existence of unstable long-run equilibrium contemporaneous relationship between the variables. It showed that the deviation from the equilibrium level in the current year will be corrected by 8.8% in the following year and that it will take about 11 years and 4 months to restore the long-run equilibrium state on the economic growth should there be any shock from the construction growth and oil prices fluctuation in the system.

Conclusion: The study concluded that though construction sector and general economy may be sensitive to the oil price change, their growth cannot be said to have been influenced or caused by the fluctuation in oil prices. On this strength, the subsisting oil price position in determining the economic trends in Nigeria is challenged. It then calls for new thoughts and strategies towards monitoring the oil prices and economic growth in Nigeria which may culminate in paying less attention to oil price changes and focusing more on other economic variables that trigger changes in the economy and development of Nigeria.


Keywords :

Construction growth; economic growth; fluctuation; Nigeria; oil price.

External Debt and Economic Growth of Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation



 The study investigates the impact of external debt on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1999-2015. The data for this study was obtained mainly from secondary sources mainly from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletins and Debt Management Office. Time series data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a proxy for Economic Growth, External Debt Stock (EXDS), External Debt Service Payment (EDSP), and Exchange Rate (EXGR) were used for the analysis. The techniques of Estimation employed in the study include Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, Johansen Co-integration, Vector Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality Test. Results show that external debt has an inverse effect on economic growth in Nigeria. Subsequently, the study recommends that government should empower Debt Management Office to set the mechanism in place, ensure that loans are utilised for purposes they are meant for and prosecute corrupt public officers who siphoned the money.

 Keywords :

External debt; external debt stock; external debt service payment; economic growth; Nigeria.

Evaluation of Goitrogenic Content of Common Vegetables 


Endemic goiter and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are prevalent in south west Nigeria. The present study was undertaken to identify the role of dietary goitrogen in the etiology of endemic goiter. Perchlorate, fluoride, nitrate, bromide, chloride, phosphate and cyanide content of common vegetables viz., cabbage, African Eggplant, Giant pigweed, Scent leaf, Amaranth, Tree Spinach, Black nightshade, consumed by the population of the region were measured. All the dietary goitrogen content in the investigated vegetables were found to be within the Acceptable Daily Intake and this observation suggests that in addition to iodine deficiency dietary intake of a cyanogenic plant, the combination of chemicals may play some role for the persistence of endemic goiter in Southwest Nigeria.

Keywords :

Goiter; vegetables; goitrogens.

Sensory Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of the Spice from the Fruit Pulp of Coelocaryon oxycarpum

Aims: This study aimed to assess the sensory characteristics and antioxidant properties of a spice from the fruit pulp of Coelocaryon oxycarpum (Cox), an aromatic plant.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology (UFR-STA), University Nangui Abrogoua, between April 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: The spice was obtained by drying and crushing the fruit pulp of Cox. The powder obtained was used to evaluate the sensory (colour, aroma, taste and smell) characteristics and antioxidants (phenolic compounds and vitamin A) using standard methods of analysis. The free radicals scavenging activities of the aqueous extract of the spice from Cox were determined and compared with that of a reference antioxidant (Ascorbic acid) prepared under the same conditions.

Results: The 50 % Inhibition Concentration (IC50) value of the aqueous extract of the spice (13.64 µg/mL) for DPPH radical was approximately equal to twice the value of Ascorbic acid (6.94 µg/mL). The concentration (813.69 µg / mL) of the aqueous extract of the spice led to 50 % inhibition of hydrogen peroxide radical. The iron reducing power of aqueous extract of spice was about 33 % that of Ascorbic acid at the same concentration. The spice also showed high phenolic content (2287.42 mg GAE/100 g DW). Tannins (314.95 mg tannic acid/100 g DW) were higher than flavonoids (211.57 mg quercetin /100 g DW). Catechin (494.95 µg /100g DW), epicatechin (3.21 µg /100g DW) and quercetin (6.22 µg/100g DW) were also detected. Furthermore, sensory tests showed a score for overall acceptability corresponding to pleasant levels.

Conclusion: The spice from Cox fruit presented interesting sensory characteristics. It contains also an appreciable amount of phenolic compounds which helped to highlight the potential biological activities of the spice. This spice could be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants.


Keywords :

Coelocaryon oxycarpum; sensory properties; antioxidant activity; polyphenols; spice; aromatic plants.

Antioxidant and in vivo Wound Healing Activities of Clausena anisata


 Leaves of Clausena anisata are used in many parts of West Africa including Ghana for management of wounds and other skin infections. The study was to evaluate the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant properties of ethanol leaf extract of C. anisata. The wound healing activity of ethanol leaf extract of the C. anisata was investigated using excision wound model. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. For wound healing activity, concentrations of 7 and 10% w/w aqueous cream of the extract were used. The progression of wound healing was determined by the periodic assessment of the contraction of excision wounds and histological studies. The leaf extract cream (7% w/w) was found to significantly increase the rate of wound contraction (p<0.001) at days 13 to 19 compared to the untreated. The n-propyl gallate used as the reference antioxidant agent had IC50 of 4.19 μg/mL and that of the ethanol extract was 32.9 μg/mL. These findings may justify the medicinal uses of C. anisata for the management of wounds.

 Keywords :

Wound contraction; excision wound model; free radical scavenging; Clausena anisata.

New Research In Neuroscience


Remediation of the Children with Autism by Jestimule in Morocco

The difficulties of processing facial emotions in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were reported. The traditional educations have provided evidence that traditional educations improve social skills. Nonetheless, the processing of facial emotions was limited.

A serious game, called JeStiMulE, used as a computer-based game, has been developed in order to teach emotions to individuals with ASD. The long-term use of this novel game would be of interest in teaching social skills. Interestingly, the input stimuli combine both the entertainment and education. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of children to play the game and whether they could improve and develop social skills via recognition facial emotions. A heterogeneous group of forty (n=40) children and adolescents with ASD received two one-hour JeStiMulEsessions per week over four weeks and forty (n=40) of normally developing children took part in this experiments. All participants were presented before and after training with emotion recognition tasks, two including pictures of game avatars (faces).Descriptive data showed an overall enhancing at the recognition of facial emotions after the training. The comparisons results have provided wide differences between controls.

.Jestimule exhibited encouraging results in terms of recognition of emotions and thus would help children to extend this acquisition to the real-life world. Ultimately, this striking tool should be integrated into educational therapies.

Keywords :Serious game; social skills training; emotion recognition; computer-based intervention.


Hypericum perforatum L. as Adjuvant to Opioid Analgesia in an Animal Model of Migraine

Aims: Despite their high analgesic efficacy, opioids can provide only partial pain relief during a migraine attack and their tolerability profile is unsatisfactory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potentiating properties of Hypericum perforatum L. (SJW) to identify a safe and tolerable adjuvant to opioid analgesia in migraine therapy.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research, and Child Health (NEUROFARBA), University of Florence, Florence, Italy, between September 2008 and July 2009.

Methodology: A mouse model of meningeal nociception induced by administration of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used. The following treatment groups were used: saline, SNP, morphine, SJW, SNP+morphine, SNP+SJW, SNP+morphine+SJW. The presence of thermal allodynia was evaluated through the cold plate test. The presence of behavioural side effects was determined by the evaluation of locomotor activity (rotarod test), spontaneous mobility and inspection activity (hole board test).

Results: SNP induced a long lasting thermal allodynia that appeared after 1 h, peaked after 3-4 h and disappeared 6 h after administration. The co-injection of a single low dose of SJW (1 mg/kg) with morphine (2-5 mg/kg) greatly increased the opioid analgesia (P<.05). SJW, when administered alone,was
 unable to counteract SNP-induced allodynia. Among the main components of this herbal drug, hypericin produced a potentiating activity comparable to that induced by SJW whereas hyperforin and flavonoids were ineffective. Animal gross’ behavior and locomotor activity were not altered by co-administrationof morphine and SJW.

Conclusion: Present results showed the potentiating activity of SJW on morphine antinociception in an animal model of migraine. This herbal drug might be proposedas adjuvant to opioid agonists to produce analgesia using lower, safer doses of opioids. This combination might represent a therapeutic perspective for migraine pain

Keywords :Migraine; opioid; analgesia; adjuvant; Hypericum perforatum; morphine.

Latest Research in Artificial insemination

Research no -1

Studies on the Effect of Lugol’s Iodine on Reproductive Efficiency of Dairy Cattle

The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of intra uterine infusion of 20 ml Lugol’s iodine (0.25 %) on day 5 (Group I; n= 18), day 17 (Group II n= 17) on reproductive performance as compared to untreated animals (Group III; n= 18). The average inter estrus interval in the animals in treatment group I (14.12 ± 0.396 days) was significantly (P<0.01) shorter than group II (23.93 ± 0.330 days) and control group III (20.93 ± 0.870 days). The average duration (days) for first postpartum fertile estrus was shortest (88.93 ± 10.053 days) in group I, followed by group II (106.46 ± 8.743 days) and control group III (113.72 ± 7.131 days). The number of artificial insemination (A.I.) required per conception was experiential to be only 1.38 in group I while the values were 1.50 and 1.91 for group II and III, correspondingly.

Research no -2

Effect of Skim Milk and Tris-citrate Extenders to Preserve the Semen of Indigenous Ram of Bangladesh

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the sperm preservation and maintenance of genetic resources of small ruminants. The study aimed to determine and compare the preservation effects of skim milk and Tris-citrate on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed indigenous ram semen (n=13) during rainy monsoon season (June to October) in Bangladesh. Semen was collected from four indigenous rams by artificial vagina method to observe motility, viability and membrane integrity at 0, 24, 48, 72 hrs of storage. The hypo-osmotic resistance test (HOST) was used to evaluate the sperm membrane integrity. The ejaculates were divided into two groups according to dilution with skim milk or Tris-citric acid egg yolk media for chilling and freezing. Motility, viability and membrane integrity were significantly (p<0.01) higher in chilled semen samples diluted with skim milk in comparison to those of semen diluted with Tris-based extender at all time-based observations. However, around 50% motility was preserved up to 48 hours by both extenders. Results also showed that motility, viability and HOST (+ve %) decreased drastically after cryopreservation irrespective of diluents. Similar to chilled semen, studied parameters were significantly upper (p<0.05) in frozen-thawed semen diluted with skim milk based extender, though quality parameter of frozen-thawed semen was not satisfactory. In conclusion, skim milk based extender appears to be a better option compared to Tris based extenders for chilling semen of indigenous ram up to 48 hours with acceptable quality. Whether the differences found between the extenders will be reflected in the fertility results after artificial insemination (AI) is yet unknown and wants to be further studied.

Research no -3

Farmers’ Perceptions of Socio - Economic Biosafety Considerations Regarding Adoption and Use of Biotechnology: A Case Study of Sithobeleni and Lesibovu Communities in Swaziland

Agriculture plays a huge role in the economy of Swaziland. It is also essential for food production. Over 70% of the agriculture is practiced in the rural sector where mainly food crops are produced under subsistence farming systems characterized by large hectares cultivated with corn and a high cattle population producing low yields. Biotechnology has potential to improve agricultural production. Biosafety procedures have been developed to ensure safe handling of products of modern biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine socio economic considerations for risk assessment when products of modern biotechnology are introduced into the environment. Information was obtained from key informants and focus discussion groups of cotton, maize and cattle farmers from Lesibovu and Sithobeleni communities. Key biotechnologies already practiced in the communities included production and use F1 hybrid maize seeds as well as artificial insemination in dairy cattle. The major socio economic factors that should be considered when new technologies are introduced include consideration of community norms and values such as seed sharing and seed saving, considerations of cultural and religious beliefs such as objection to eating of some animal species, and acceptability of products of modern biotechnology by markets. Major constraints limiting implementation of technologies in the communities include difficulties with acquisition of inputs, drought and shortage of advisory services. It was observed that farmers were willing to adopt modern biotechnology provided that it was safe to public health, animal health and the environment. The technology should be legally acceptable in the country and be approved for use elsewhere.  It was concluded that there is need to ensure that socio-economic factors form part of the risk assessment protocol when applications are considered for the release of products of modern biotechnology to the environment. Socio economic considerations should also form part of public awareness campaigns and training prior to the introduction of modern biotechnology into communities.

Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Detected in Namibe Province Angola


Aim: The aim of this study is to detect the presence of the South American tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Angola. This pest has recently attracted attention to the scientific community of Africa and worldwide due to its tomato destructive nature and its rapid spread. The invasion of T. absoluta in an area has negative impact on food safety, security and livelihood. Additionally, this may have ecological impact due to the loss of beneficial organisms by pesticides use, competition or co-existence with native arthropods and thereby perturbs the natural ecosystem.

Methodology: Between 3rd to15th February 2017 the survey was conducted in tomato farms in order to determine the presence of the pest in the province.

Result: During the survey, larvae were detected on the aerial parts of tomato (Solanum lycopersicumL) plants and created blotched leaf galleries and superficial mines on fruits. Additionally, the adult male was investigated under stereo microscope which captures by a specific pheromone traps (TUA optima lure), thereby confirming and indicating the presence or absence of T. absoluta in the tomato fields.

Conclusion: This is the first study on detection of tomato leaf miner, T. absoluta in Angola with its attendant destructive ability on tomatoes which should necessitate quick surveillance methods and management tactics before the situation gets out of control.



Keywords : Detection; tomato; Invasive; Tuta absoluta; Namibe; Angola.

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Properties of Bacterial Cellulases and Secondary Metabolites of Cellulolytic Bacterial Fermentation of Rice Husk


The unchecked accumulation of rice husk which is one of the agro-industrial wastes on land serves as source of environmental pollution. This present study showed that submerged fermentation of rice husk for cellulase production and extraction of secondary metabolites was successful using bacterial isolates. The identities of the cellulase hyper-producing strains were Bacillus subtilis strain SDDlas, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CF11, Bacillus cereus strain AT and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The partial purification of cellulase was achieved by Protein precipitation using ammonium sulphate fractionation, and membrane dialyses. The metallic salts CaCl2, MgSO4 and FeSO4 activated cellulase activity whereas CuSO4 inhibited it. The compounds common to the four Bacillus strains at zero hour are: 9,17-Octadecadienal and propanal while secondary metabolites found after seven days fermentation are cis-13-Octadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic and di-isoctyl phthalate. These organic acids are of industrial importance in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

Keywords :Fermentation; secondary metabolites; cellulase and fermentation.

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Efficacy of Organic Fertilizers Produced Using Locally Formulated Effective Microorganisms on the Growth and Yield Responses of Maize


Aims: A study was conducted on growth and yield responses of maize to organic fertilizers produced from organic municipal solid wastes (MSW) using locally formulated effective microorganisms (EM-A and EM-B), commercial effective microorganisms (EM-C), Neem-based organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers.

Study Design: The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design with three replicates each.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was sited at Department of Works, Bosso Campus of Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria between July and October, 2016.

Methodology: Maize was planted in the experimental plot and four organic fertilizers as well as one inorganic fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) were applied as treatments. Growth parameters were monitored and recorded weekly while yield parameters were determined after harvest. 

Results: Plant height, leaf number, leaf area, cob length, cob diameter and number of grains per cob differed significantly (P< 0.05). MF,(Soil with inorganic fertilizer, NPK15:15:15), recorded the highest plant height of 259 cm. MB and MC, (organic fertilizers produced with EM-A and EM-B respectively), recorded the highest leaf number of 16, while ME, which contained Neem-based organic fertilizer had the highest leaf area. On yield responses, MD,(organic fertilizers with commercial EM), recorded the best yield with cob length of 20.85 cm, cob diameter of 15.90 cm and a mean number of grains per cob of 623. This was followed by MB with cob length of 18.25 cm, highest cob diameter of 16.30 cm and second highest mean number of grains per cob of 500.

Conclusion: The organic fertilizers demonstrated more adequacies for crop use than the inorganic fertilizers. Although the maize plants where inorganic fertilizers were applied recorded highest plant height, the crop yield was lower than that of organic fertilizers-based treatments. The organic fertilizers produced from solid organic wastes also demonstrated both higher growth and yield responses than the Neem-based organic fertilizers.

Keywords :Maize; Fertilizers; plant height; cob length; grain yield.

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A SNP Genetic Linkage Map Based on F2 Population Genotyping in Soybean,Glycine max (L.) Merrill


This study reports a low density genetic linkage map based on 7 x 7 F2 population of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill and constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. 50 SNP markers were used to screen the DNA samples of the soybean out of which only 32 were polymorphic with the samples. These 32 SNP markers were mapped using the Mapchart of WINQTL CART. Vsn 2.5 and the SNPs were distributed on 13 LGs (linkage groups) among the 20 chromosomes of the soybean genome. The total map length was just 2211.46cM with an average marker density of 905.86cM. This SNP based genetic linkage map of soybean could be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important agronomic characters in soybean.

Keywords :Soybean; F2 population; genotyping; linkage map; SNP markers.

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Sensory Analysis of Cakes Enriched with Almonds Powders of Terminalia catappa from Cote d'Ivoire


 Aims: The present work evaluates the sensory properties of nine (9) cakes enriched with almonds powders of Terminalia catappa produced in Cote d’Ivoire.

Study Design: The current study focuses on the sensory properties (descriptive profile and hedonic analysis) of nine (9) cakes enriched with the powders of almonds of Terminalia catappa.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biochemistry department of Biosciences Unit, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, between October and December 2015.

Methodology: The collected fruits were crushed, their almonds extracted were ground, sieved and the powders obtained were separated according to the size of their particle and their proportion. Nine (9) cakes enriched with powdered almonds of Terminalia catappa have been prepared and subjected to sensory analyses. Sensory analyses were realized to revel the descriptive profile regarding nine sensory descriptors, namely color crumb, ventilation crumb, texture silky, texture crumbly, sweet flavor, fat sensation, wet sensation, aroma and bitter, and then hedonic analysis.

Results: Regarding acceptability, the sensory properties, color, taste, mellow texture, mouth appearance and aroma, differ significantly (p <0.001) from the cakes enriched with almond flour from T. catappa. As for the scores attributed to the different cakes, they are statistically identical. Means are high and range from 6.07 / 9 to 7.13 / 9. At the perception level, the profiles showed significant differences at p˂0,001 for fortified cakes. The cake scores show no statistical difference except for the color of the crumb. At this profile, the color of the crumb was more noticeable in the F3 cake with a score of 8.11 / 10, while the F2 cake showed the lowest score (3.3 / 10).

Conclusion: The almond flour of T. catappa weakly influences the sensory characteristics of the made cakes. It could be used to enrich the cakes and thus allow a better valorization of this plant.



Keywords :Sensory analysis; almonds; cake; Terminalia catappa; Côte d’Ivoire.

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Inter and Intra Genetic Diversity of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Jammu and Kashmir Ecological Zone


Nine sweet cherry accessions were used for the analysis of morphological variability and genetic diversity by means of multivariate statistical analysis. Days from full bloom to harvest was significantly lowest (66.33 days) in accession-6. Significantly highest fruit set (37.10%) was found in accession-2. However, fruit length was highest in selection-1 (24.82 mm) which was statistically at par with accession-7 (24.77 mm). Fruit weight was maximum in selection-2 (8.13 g) which was found to statistically at par with accession-1 (8.08g) and accession-7 (8.08 g). Fruit firmness was statistically maximum in selection-7 (396 gmm-1). Maximum stone length (11.40mm) was found in accession-8 while as minimum was observed in accession-2 (10.10 mm). Stone weight was observed to be maximum in accession-7 (0.48 g) while as minimum in accession-6 (0.35 g). Statistically highest and lowest TSS was observed in accession-7 and accession-6, respectively. Most acidic fruit were of accession-6 and accession-9 while as least acidic fruits were of accession-3. Significantly maximum yield was observed in accession-2 (8.31 kg).  The phenotypic variance was higher than genotypic variance for each observed trait. The phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation was highest for TSS: acid ratio (16.21 & 15.94%) followed by fruit set (15.08 & 15.07%) and lowest for stone length (4.32 & 4.29%). The estimates of heritability (broad sense) in combination with genetic advance (as percent of mean) were high for fruit set (0.99 & 31.05%), TSS: Acid ratio (0.96 & 32.29%), fruit yield (0.97 & 28.56%), firmness (0.99 & 27.51) and fruit weight (0.99 & 21.02%). The accessions under study were grouped into 4 clusters as per Mahalanobis D2 analysis with maximum number of accessions in cluster I (5) followed by cluster IV (2) and rest two 2 clusters were monogenotypic.  The maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster IV (2995.47) followed by cluster I (1900.65) where as the inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster II and IV (12307.92) followed by cluster I and IV (10387.72).

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A Modified Poly (Trimethylene Terephthalate) Used for Fused Deposition Modeling: Synthesis and Application


This paper presents the synthesis and application of a modified poly (trimethylene terephthalate) for Fused deposition modeling process. Five samples(S1-S5) of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-co-isophthalate-co-seacate) (PTTIS) were prepared by direct esterification and subsequent polycondensation of terephthalic acid (PTA), isophthalic acid(PIA) (nPTA/nPIA =7/3), sebacic acid (SA) and 1,3-propanediol (PDO) with different mole percent(αSA) of SA(αSA=0–4.8 mol%). The samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The mechanical properties tests showed  that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and flexural strength values of the samples increase with increasing in αSA up to 1 mol%, and then decreases, while  the elongation at break value the opposite, and the izod impact strength value increases with increasing in αSA. The 3D printing materials which were prepared from S1-S5 were tested by a 3D printer to assess their suitability for Fused deposition modeling (FDM). The results showed that the PTTIS (nPTA/nPIA =7/3) containing 1.0–3.8 mol% SA are suitable for FDM, and their anisotropy are better than that of ABS.

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An Elementary Approach to the Option Pricing Problem

Our goal here is to discuss the pricing problem of European and American options in discrete time using elementary calculus so as to be an easy reference for first year undergraduate students. Using the binomial model we compute the fair price of European and American options. We explain the notion of Arbitrage and the notion of the fair price of an option using common sense. We give a criterion that the holder can use to decide when it is appropriate to exercise the option. We prove the put-call parity formulas for both European and American options and we discuss the relation between American and European options. We give also the bounds for European and American options. We also discuss the portfolio optimization problem and the fair value in the case where the holder can not produce the opposite portfolio.

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The Quantum Hydrodynamic Formulation of Dirac Equation and Its Generalized Stochastic and Non-linear Analogs


The quantum hydrodynamic-like equations as a function of two real sets of variables (i.e., the 4x4 action matrix and the 4-dimensional wave function modulus vector) of the Dirac equation are derived in the present work. The paper shows that in the low velocity limit the equations lead to the hydrodynamic representation of the Pauli’s equation for charged particle with spin given by Janossy [1] and by Bialynicki et al [2]. The Lorentz invariance of the relativistic quantum potential that generates the non-local behavior of the quantum mechanics is discussed.

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SCIENCEDOMAIN international is providing a transparent OPEN Peer Review and Post-Publication Peer Review, DOI, Wide Indexing in a low price

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Foreign Capital and Poverty Reduction in West Africa


This paper investigates the effect of foreign capital on poverty reduction. For our analysis, we used recent panel data for ten West African countries* for the period 2000 - 2014. Results of the empirical test of the simultaneous equation model indicate that foreign capital affects poverty through growth and inequality. The total effect on poverty reduction is negative when the inequality effect outweighs the growth effect. Thus, foreign capital inflows promotion policies should necessary account for receiving countries socioeconomics mutations.

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Identification of Insect Pest Species of Maize, Their Infestation and Damage Levels at Ziway Dugda Woreda, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia


The survey was carried out in 2017 main cropping season to support farmers for correct insect pest identification. Three Kebeles, Hallo, Sambaro and Herara with five farmer’s fields randomly selected. Ten representative plants were taken from each field. Data on mean larval density per plant, percentage leaf infestation and damage levels were assessed. Results from mean larval density per plant showed that significant difference between insect species (R2= 0.96, Pr (>|Z|=0.013) where the highest 1.55-2.30 was recorded from C. partellus. There was a significant difference between C. partellus and M. trapezalis; S. frugiperda and M. trapezalis in percentage leaf infestation (R2=0.75, Pr. (>|Z|=2e-16) where, the highest were recorded from C. partellus and S. frugiperda representing 50-90% and 40-90% respectively. From the above, C. partellus and S. frugiperda were at risk, as a result insecticide was recommended. M. trapezalis showed a lower infestation level so that hand picking was more economical than use of insecticide. Hence, registration and detail molecular identification will be needed as M. trapezals is the first record on maize crop in Ethiopia.

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Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of Pterocarpus erinaceus Stem Bark


The use of plants for medicine is gaining more acceptability worldwide due to its availability, affordability, efficiency and considerable safety. This study sought to gather information on the phytochemical and nutrient composition of Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark. This will be a guide to the importance of the plant healthwise. Phytochemical, proximate, mineral and vitamin analysis was done using standard procedures. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids were present in both aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus. Anthraquinone was present only in the ethanolic extract. Proximate analysis shows high carbohydrate and fibre content 39.33 ± 0.05% and 31.22 ± 0.32% respectively. The extract also contains 8.70 ± 1.10% protein and 0.45 ± 0.50% fat. Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark is a rich source of vitamin A (75.87 ±0.12 IU/100 g) and B9 (71.25 ± 1.23 mcg/100 g). Heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) were not detected in this study. Phosphorus and iron were detected in high amount. This therefore justifies the use of this plant for the treatment of diseases such as aneamia and diarrhea. Research should be carried out on this stem bark to explore more potentials of this plant.

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A Study on the Population Scenario of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in and around Alwara Lake of District Kaushambi (U.P.), India


The Indian Sarus crane, Grus antigone antigone is one of the most graceful, monogamous, non-migratory, and tallest flying bird of the world. Pairing for lifelong and lionize legendry marital fidelity, for which the species has garnered global popularity. This is the only resident breeding crane of the Indian subcontinent that has been declared as ‘State Bird’ by the Government of Uttar Pradesh, a state of the Indian Republic. However, due to the shrinking of wetlands at an alarming speed in the country, the population of this bird has become vulnerable.  Present exploration is aimed to study the population of sarus crane in the year 2016 in and around the Alwara Lake of district Kaushambi (Uttar Pradesh) India and their comparison to sarus crane population recorded in 2012 and 2015 in the same study area. This comparison reflects an increasing population scenario of the bird in the area studied.  It has been observed that the prevailing ecological conditions of the lake, the crane friendly behaviour of the local residents and awareness efforts of the authors have a positive correlation in the conservation and increasing population trends of this vulnerable bird. This conservation model can, therefore, be applied elsewhere for the conservation of other such species. Moreover, the authors strongly recommend continuous population census of this bird and declaration of the entire Alwara Lake as Sarus Sanctuary to make it safe zone for the conservation of Sarus crane.

Keywords :Alwara Lake; conservation; population census; Sarus crane; wetland.

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The Influence of Meteorological Parameters on Atmospheric Visibility over Ikeja, Nigeria


This present study investigates the variation of atmospheric visibility with meteorological parameters of measured monthly average daily visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and wind speed for a period of 12-years over Ikeja, Lagos State, South Western, Nigeria (Latitude 6.58°N, Longitude 3.33°E and altitude 40 m above sea level). The results indicated that the seasonal variation of atmospheric visibility is greater during the rainy season than in the dry season. The best visibility was observed during the rainy season with an average value of 9.73 km in the month of April while the worst visibility was during the dry season with an average value of 5.88 km in the month of January. The results from regular observation of atmospheric visibility for the study area during the period under investigation indicated that the observed visibility ranged between 5.88 ± 1.03 km and 9.73 ± 1.03 km with annual mean of 8.68 ± 1.03 km which implies that the atmosphere is mostly clear. The average atmospheric extinction coefficient computed for the study area is approximately 0.4628 km-1 (4.628 × 10-4m-1). Simple linear regression equation relating the atmospheric visibility and the meteorological parameters were developed from which the regression equation relating atmospheric visibility with relative humidity was recommended based on the coefficient of correlation ®, coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of estimates (SEE) and p-value. The skewness and kurtosis for the atmospheric visibility are negatively skewed with value -1.514 and positive kurtosis (leptokurtic distribution) with value 1.244.

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Public and Healthcare Practitioner Attitudes towards HIV Testing: Review of Evidence from the United Kingdom (UK)


Aims: To explore attitudes towards HIV testing in the United Kingdom (UK) from the public and healthcare practitioners (HCP) to more fully understand the barriers and motivators towards testing.

Methodology: Electronic databases Pubmed, Web of Science, OVID Medline and Google were searched. We included studies conducted in the UK that had explored public and HCP attitudes towards HIV testing, published in the combination antiretroviral therapy era (1996–2014). We excluded studies relating to HIV testing or screening of pregnant women.

Results: In a total of 64 studies identified, 41 and 23 were on positive and negative attitudes towards HIV testing of the public and HCP, respectively. Common barriers reported by the public were stigma, fear, denial, and low perception of risk. Common barriers reported by HCP were lack of confidence or anxiety around offering a test, privacy and confidentiality, and insufficient knowledge/training in HIV. Public motivators towards testing were: HCP offering/recommending a test, universal testing at practice registration, outreach rapid point-of-care (POC) testing offered as part of a check-up, availability of home testing/sampling, and informing patients about HIV and the benefit of receiving treatment.

Conclusions: Recommendations to overcome barriers include making HIV testing routine, easier and more accessible. Outreach POC testing, home testing and sampling offer motivators to testing such as ease of access, privacy and confidentiality. A proactive offer of an HIV test by the HCP is an important factor which could help increase testing rates. This could be facilitated by further education and training of HCP in General Practice.

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An Investigation of the Relationship between Indices of Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult Females


 Background: According to the World Health Organisation [1] obesity is now a “global epidemic”, ranking as the fifth most common cause of death worldwide. Obesity prevalence has more than doubled over the past two decades [2], with particularly high levels in Scotland [3]. Obesity shows strong associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the largest single cause of death in the UK [4]; accounting for one in three deaths. Currently NICE [5] recommend using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for obesity assessment. Recently Krakauer and Krakauer [6] proposed the novel “a body shape index” (ABSI) for better predicting mortality hazard. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between BMI, WC, percentage body fat (%BF), ABSI and various cardiovascular risk factors in adult females.

 Methods: The study was granted university ethical approval had an observational cross-sectional design and recruited through convenience sampling. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry methodologies were used to measure height, weight and WC. Single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis enabled estimation of %BF. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated by dividing weight (kg) by height squared (m2). ABSI (m11/6 kg-2/3) was calculated by dividing WC (m) by BMI2/3 (kg/m2) height½ (m) using an online calculator. Physical activity levels (PAL) and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and self-reports of alcohol intake and alcoholic binges were also obtained. Vascular health was determined via: blood pressure (BP); carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the augmentation index (AIx) using a Vicorder™ device. SPSS v.19 was used to determine Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients for normally distributed data (WC, ABSI, sitting time, systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean BP) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients for all other data.

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Comparative Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Locally Refined Diesel and Kerosene on Rhizopus stolonifer in Rivers State, Nigeria


Aim: To compare the effect of locally refined diesel and kerosene on Rhizopus stolonifer in tri aquatic bodies.

Study Design: The study employs experimental assay and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.
Place of Study: Freshwater, brackish water, and marine water samples were collected in sterile bottles from Ugama Ekede Stream, Ugama Ekede River and at the foot of the Atlantic ocean in Udun Ama all in Andoni Local Government Area Rivers State, using sterile sampling bottles. These samples were transported to the microbiological laboratory with ice pack within 24 hours for both isolations of test organisms and toxicity.
Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing locally refined diesel and kerosene at concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%, tested for durations of 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h. The cultures were incubated at 35ºC for 48 hours. LC50 was determined.
Results: The results indicate that logarithm of mortality of Rhizopus stolonifer increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the locally refined diesel and kerosene increases in the following order: (Note: the higher the LC50, the lower the toxic effect. Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in fresh water (41.88%) <Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in fresh water (41.64.5%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in brackish water (43.28%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in brackish water (33.41%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in marine water (40.17%) <Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in marine water (36.10%).
Conclusion: Locally refined kerosene in brackish water (LC50 = 33.41%) is the most toxic, having the lowest LC50 while locally refined diesel in brackish water (LC50 = 43.28%) have the lowest toxicity effect. These results show that locally refined diesel and kerosene can inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer in an aquatic ecosystem.
Keywords :Locally refined diesel and kerosene; toxicity; Rhizopus stolonifer; freshwater; brackish water; marine water; ecosystem.

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Induction of Resistance in Poplar to Melampsora larici-populina Using L-form Bacteria

Poplars (Populus spp.) of the Family Salicaceae are extensively cultivated worldwide and are susceptible to a variety of bacterial and fungal diseases. In Populus species, leaf rust disease caused by several species of Melampsora leads to considerable damages in plantations.  Melampsora larici-populina is the most devastating and widespread fungal pathogen causing leaf rust disease in poplars. In this study, leaves and young stems of rooted cuttings of two poplar clones were treated with L-form bacteria of Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 8054, ATCC 6633 and then challenged with the spores of rust pathogen M. larici-populina. The development of uredinia was evaluated in the laboratory using the leaf disc assay. The L-forms greatly reduced rust severity in inoculated poplar leaves (local effect), while to a lesser extent in non-inoculated leaves obtained from inoculated plants showing a low systemic effect on pustule development. This plant- L-form symbiosis may have contributed significantly to a quantitative resistance to M. larici-populina indicating a promising implication for the use of L-form bacteria of B. subtilis as a biocontrol agent for poplars against the rust pathogen.

Keywords :L-form bacteria; plant-L-form association; induced resistance; Populus spp.; Melampsora larici-populina; leaf disc assay.

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Conventional and Nano-Based Therapy against Chronic Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases


Structural or functional damage to cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems emerging from immunologically competent cells or antibodies against a normal component of the host body may lead to autoimmune disorder or diseases. There are about 152 autoimmune diseases classified till now by American Autoimmune Related Disease Association. Current research investigators are more focused on certain autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac disease, Sjögren's syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, type-1 diabetes, alopecia areata, vasculitis and temporal arteritis. Chronic inflammation is a common link among most of the autoimmune disorder, but the exact link is not clear. Therefore an effective cure for the disease could not be developed. The conventional therapeutics available is steadily getting constrained because of the development resistance. Present therapeutic shows some limitations such as unidirectional, unspecific and resistance with specific side-effect. With the present advancement in science and technology, it is now possible to alienate the present constraints offered by the present conventional therapeutics by the application of biocompatible, biodegradable nano-formulated drug delivery system. Therefore the intention of this mini-review is to provide a base knowledge about the relationship of autoimmune diseases with inflammation as well as the efficiency of the conventional and nanotechnology-based therapy.

Keywords :Autoimmunity; inflammation; nanotechnology; nanoformulation; drug delivery; biodegradable; biocompatible.

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Callus Induction from Zygotic Embryos of Coconut MATAG F2


The effect of 2,4-D (in concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L) applied in combination with BAP (1.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L) on callus induction in coconut MATAG F2 zygotic embryos cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was investigated. The effects of IBA, TDZ and NAA combined with 2,4-D were also tested. The best callus formation (20%) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D at 10.0 mg/L. The induced calli were yellowish in colour and structurally compact. Different portions of the zygotic embryo were also compared for callus induction when used as explants and cultured on MS medium supplemented 10.0 mg/L 2,4-D. The incidence of callus formation (up to 83%) was highest from the middle portion of the embryos.


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Development of Triploid Callus of Hevea brasiliensis Using Endosperm


Aim: To generate a pathway for development of Hevea triploids using endosperm tissue as an explant.

Study Design: Standardization and optimisation of various parameters for isolation and culture of endosperm tissue and protoplast. Completely randomized design for data from different treatment. Ploidy of the obtained culture was determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Rubber Research Institute of India and duration of the study 12 months.

Methodology: Endosperm tissues were collected from Hevea seeds of different developmental stages. Somatic embryogenesis from endosperm tissue using callus mediated embryogenesis and direct method of embryogenesis were carried. Endosperm tissue from both immature and mature seeds was cut into thin slices and subjected to enzymatic digestion for the release of protoplasts. Different concentrations and combinations of cell wall digestion enzymes and osmotic agents experimented. The callus obtained from endosperm tissue was subjected to cytological analysis and flow cytometric analysis.

Results: Endosperm tissue from immature fruits was found to be ideal one week between (8-10 weeks) both for somatic embryogenesis and for the release of large amount of protoplasts. Of the two basal media tried, Nitsch medium favoured callus induction, 6 % callus induction from mature endosperm tissue in presence of 2,4-D (6.3 µM) and Kin (12.1 µM) and 10 % callus induction from immature endosperm tissue in presence of  BA (4.4 µM) and NAA (2.2 µM). Direct embryogenesis (2 %) has been obtained from immature endosperm in MS basal medium along with GA3 (2.0 µM) and BA (11.1 µM). A few of the endosperm protoplasts showed division when cultured over K&M medium with NAA (0.1 µM) 2,4-D (0.2 µM) and BA (0.4 µM).

Conclusion: Endosperm can be used for the development of triploids of Hevea brasiliensis. The ploidy variants i.e. triploids, developed through these in vitro techniques can be further used in Hevea brasiliensis breeding.



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Assessment of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV-AIDS Patients Attending Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital Birnin-Kebbi, Nigeria


Aims: To assess lipid profile among HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and controls in our environment.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 120 participants consisting of 40 HIV patients on ART, 40 ART-naïve patients and 40 negative controls.

Place and Duration of Study: Antiretroviral Clinic, Sir Yahayya Memorial Hospital, Birnin-Kebbi and Chemical Pathology Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between March, 2016 and June, 2016.

Methodology: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) were assayed based on enzymatic methods using SELECTRA XL automated chemistry analyzer with analysis in batches. LDL-c and atherogenic index (AI) was calculated using Friedwald’s formula (LDL-c = TC-(TG/2.2)-HDL-c mmol/L) (Satya, 2011) and TC/HDL-c respectively.

Results: Our result showed that the mean values of TC and HDLc was significantly higher (p<0.01) in HIV patients on ART compared to controls. The serum LDL-c was significantly lower (p<0.05) between patients on ART and controls. AI was significantly lower (p<0.01) in HIV patients on ART compared to controls. There was no statistically significant difference in TC and AI (P>0.05) between ART-naïve HIV-patients and controls. However, statistically significant difference was observed in BMl and LDL-c (P<0.05) in ART-naïve HIV-patients and controls. No statistically significant difference observed in the mean age, TG and LDL-c (P>0.05) between the patients on ART and ART-naïve patients. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in TC, HDL-c, AI and BMl in patients on ART compared to ART-naïve patients.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that HIV infected patients have a host of variations in their lipid profile compared to HIV negative controls in our environment. The dyslipidemia levels, high LDL-c and TG were found in patients compared to control. ART could have additional advantage of enhancing HDL-c and may be associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular events.

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Optimization of Palm Olein Stability during Storage Using Natural Antioxidants from Cocoa Pods Extract


Aims: The objective of this study is an attempt to optimize palm olein stability during storage using natural antioxidants from Theobroma cacao pods.

Study Design: Drying of fresh cocoa pods, extraction of natural antioxidants and its application as antioxidants to optimize oxidative stability of palm olein during storage.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Dschang, Cameroon and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad, India, from March 2016 to January 2017.

Methodology: The plant material was extracted and its reducing power, metal ion chelating activity evaluated. The extract was added in refined palm olein. Peroxide, p-Anisidine and total oxidation (TOTOX) values were determined as response variables to evaluate the effect of storage time and extract concentration during storage of oil.

Results: The outcomes showed cocoa pods extract to be efficient in metal ion chelating activity and have the ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. This extract was also found to be efficient in inhibiting peroxide formation and reducing, in the same way, the amount of secondary oxidation products. At 2000 ppm, Theobroma cacao pods extract has the ability to extend the shelf life (30 months) of palm olein during storage.


Conclusion: Theobroma cacao pods can be exploited as an alternative source of synthetic antioxidants for stabilization of palm olein and other oil systems.

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Eucalyptus Expansion as Relieving and Provocative Tree in Ethiopia


Over the last century, Eucalyptus has rapidly expanded across the globe. It has become the most planted tree species. Environmentalists fear this for the perceived negative eco-hydrological impact. Foresters and wood industries support its expansion looking at its socio-economic benefits. Ethiopia is one of the countries where Eucalyptus dominates forest development gains in the last century. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the expansion, benefit and challenges of Eucalyptus in Ethiopia. Eucalyptus was introduced to Africa, and Ethiopia, around the end of the 19th century, in 1890s. Since then it has continued to expand to cover wider geographic areas within Ethiopia: highland and lowland. It is providing multiple purposes, economic and social, for millions of households in urban and rural areas. It has substituted effectively some of the natural forest’s functions, principally in wood supply; hence this way it has contributed to reducing pressure and in slowing down deforestation. Yet Eucalyptus sustained blame for ecosystem water and soil nutrient drains, and allelopathic effect to suppress native flora growth. Studies on these aspects of the genus are inconclusive. Some argue the extravagant use of water and nutrient, while others argue otherwise. There are studies that show water and nutrient use of Eucalyptus is based on availability: for instance, dry season and wet season uses are not the same. The most known about Eucalyptus is its high nutrient and water use efficiency. Therefore, when evaluated on per volume of water, nutrient and land allocated for biomass production, Eucalyptus will provide the highest biomass return. This may make it the preferred species. The paper concludes that the development of Eucalyptus forestry is crucial in narrowing the gap between forest product demand and supply in the current context of Ethiopia and most African countries, but such development should be managed with proper silviculture: Planted in the right site and tended properly to optimize its positive values and reduce possible negative effects.

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Selection of Resistant Varieties of Okra to Yellow Vein Clearing Mosaic Virus and Its Management



A two-factorial field experiment on okra was conducted at the Horticulture Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka from April to August 2015. The aim of the study was to find out the resistance of okra varieties against the Yellow vein clearing mosaic virus (YVCMV) and its management. Four varieties viz. BARI dherosh-1, Green finger, Nuffield and Orca onamika were selected as the first factor and two insecticides (Imidacloprid and Sobicron) and one botanical nutrient namely Peak performance nutrients (PPN) were used as the second factor. The plants were grown and natural inoculum was relied upon for the infection of YVCMV. Growth parameters, yield attributes, and physiological features were significantly affected by okra varieties and two selected insecticides and PPN combinations. YVCMV incidence was significantly varied with these combinations. Among the varieties, the lowest disease incidence was found in BARI dherosh-1 which showed high resistance. Green finger and Nuffield provided moderate resistance where Orca onamika was highly susceptible to the disease incidence. Application of Sobicron with PPN gave the lowest disease incidence while the control under the application of no insecticides and PPN gave the highest disease incidence. The availability of resistance sources against the virus is very limited among the cultivated okra varieties. Though BARI dherosh-1 provides resistance mechanism against the virus, Green finger and Nuffield which are moderate resistant can be developed as resistant cultivars through genetic regulation along with the molecular mechanism of resistance to YVCMV.

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Mobile and Internet Addiction among Urban Respondents


This study was done in Hisar city of Haryana state in India. Data were collected from 160 urban respondents of different age groups. Majority of respondents check their mobile phone within every five minutes (36.2%) followed by every notification (31.2%) and within every half an hour (18.7%). The overall scores indicate that respondents from 16-30 years and >30-45 years had a high addiction of smartphone while the other two groups had medium addiction by overall weighted mean score.

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Dielectric Properties of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Tetrafluoroborate (EMIM-BF4) Using Cole-Cole Relaxation Model


The Cole-Cole relaxation equations were derived from the Debye equation. The dielectric constant and loss factor of EMIM-BF4 were fitted using the derived equations at temperature range of 5°C to 65°C and frequency range of 0.1GHz to 10GHz. The result obtained shows that the dielectric constant and loss factor of EMIM-BF4 were higher at low frequency (i.e. f =0.1GHZ and decrease as the frequency increases. The dielectric constant also increases with increase in the temperature except at 0.1GHz. At 15°C there was a sudden increase in the dielectric constant especially as the frequency increases beyond 5GHz. This sudden increase in the dielectric constant of EMIM-BF4 may be due to the phase change of EMIM-BF4. The loss factor of EMIM-BF4 was generally small for all frequencies and temperatures. This may be due to the fact that EMIM-BF4 consumed less energy when subjected to an applied field.


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Effectiveness of Brain-based Learning Strategy on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Knowledge Retention in Electrochemistry


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Brain-Based Learning strategy on students’ academic achievement, attitude, motivation and knowledge retention in Electrochemistry. The study used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. A total of 87 Senior Secondary Two students from two intact classes from North-Eastern part of Nigeria with an average age of 17 years of 2015/2016 academic session participated in this study. One of the classes served as the experimental group that used Brain-Based Learning (N=40) while the other was control group that used Lecture-Based Teaching method (N=47). Data were collected through achievement test, attitude and motivation scales. The data collected were analyzed with means, independent t-test, and Analysis of Covariate which were used to compare the groups’ scores. The findings of the study reve­aled that the Brain-Based Learning approach used in the experimental group was more effective in incre­asing student achievement, attitude and motivation of students towards chemistry than the Lecture-Based approach used in the control group. It was identified that the difference between retention test scores were also statistically significant in favour of experimental group.

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Foliar Fertilization Using Liquid Tannery Sludge in Conilon Coffee Seedlings Production


The waste destination is a concern to industries and, one of the solutions are fertilizers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency liquid tannery sludge has as an alternative of foliar fertilization in Conilon coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with six treatments and eight replications, for 228 days. The control treatment was pure water, and five doses of tannery sludge were applied monthly (6.20, 8.80, 11.47, 14.10, and 17.60 mL of sludge diluted in one liter of water). The biometric and gravimetric growth characteristics were evaluated. Also, the quality index of the seedlings was assessed, and it was observed that fertilization using tannery sludge diluted above 14.23 mL.L-1 began to cause toxic effects on Conilon coffee seedlings. The doses between 8.80 and 14.23 mL.L-1 showed potential usefulness for the seedlings production.

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Clinical Urogenital Findings in Post Traumatic Pelvic Injuries Diagnosed with Plain Radiography in Southwestern Nigeria


 Aims:  This is aimed at highlighting the clinical urogenital findings in post traumatic pelvic injuries diagnosed with plain radiography.

Study Design: Prospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The accident and emergency departments of the tertiary hospitals of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, and Lagos State Health Service Commission’s Accident and Emergency Services Hospitals (LASEMS) between January 1st2009 and December 31st 2009.).

Methodology: One hundred (100) patients of all ages were recruited, diagnosed by plain radiography as pelvic traumatic injury (51 males and 49 females). Their corresponding radiographic findings and the types of trauma, sociodemographic and clinical data obtained from the request cards and case notes or files were reviewed. The radiographic findings, socio-demographic and clinical data of these patients were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info Version 6 Statistical Software on an IBM-compatible computer.

Results:  51 (51%) females and forty-nine 49 (49%) males seen at tertiary hospitals in the Lagos metropolis were recruited for this study.

Ten (10) different categories of urogenital lesions were found in eighty-three (83) occurrences among the patients in a fairly equal sex distribution made of thirty-nine (39) males and forty-four (44) females.

Haematuria was the commonest finding in thirty-five (35) patients (47.29%), occurred more in Acetabular fracture (20.48%) while the least occurrence was found in two (2) each of vesicovagina fistula and urethra stenosis representing 2.41 %.

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Automatic Controlling System of Drip Irrigation Based on GSM


Due to the population increase over the world, every field and every of a department of life are updating themselves to increase the efficiency and output product. So the development of agriculture and agriculture-related sections must also be developed. Lack of rain and ultimately a lack of water scarcity is being observed in many areas of the world. The other side aspect is that there are a numerous number of leakages in the line, which waste much water. There is a need for automation, which is the ultimate solution of the problems. This paper emphasizes on this issue and resolves the issues and gives the valuable practical solutions. Automated techniques are the best solution for minimizing the power, reduce waste of water and increase the efficiency.

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Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broiler Chickens fed Varying Dietary Levels of Sundried Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Peel Meal Supplemented with Enzyme (MAXIGRAIN®)


An eight week feeding trial was conducted at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed varying levels of sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with enzyme (MAXIGRAIN). A total of one hundred and twenty day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks was used for this experiment. Forty chicks were randomly selected based on their average initial weights to each of the four treatment diets. (T1 to T4) with T1 serving as a control and T2 to T4 having an inclusion level of Sundried cassava peel meal (SDCPM) at 20, 40, and 60% replacement levels for maize with Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation at the rate of 100mg/kg in a complete randomized design (CRD). The chicks were brooded and fed for four weeks with commercial starter diet. Thereafter they were fed formulated finisher diets for 4 weeks. The result on the haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin was significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% sundried cassava peel meal plus maxigrain supplement (SDCPM + Maxg) with the mean value of 41.68g/dl. Red blood cell was also significantly (P<0.05) highest (7.35×106/ml) from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg). MCV and Platelet values were also significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the treatment diets with highest values of 59.58fl and 3.21×103/mm3 respectively. Neutrophil and monocyte values were significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg) with an average values of (29.02% and 4.33%). Serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed the treatment diets showed that glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the various dietary treatments with highest values of 113.68mmol/L and 116.20mmol/L recorded from birds placed on the control diet the values were within the normal range. The overall result in this study showed that sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with maxigrain can successfully be included in broiler ration up to 40% level without any adverse effect on the blood quality of broiler chickens.

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Effects of Weather Conditions on Satellite Television Cable Network Reception Quality in Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria


The study examined the effects of weather conditions on satellite television cable network reception quality. The ex-post facto research design was used. The primary data were generated through personal observation/monitoring of Television sets that were connected to the three prominent networks (MYTV, DSTV, and HITV) in Warri. Rainfall stations were established in each of the sample areas and were used to collect rainfall amount between the months of May and August, being rainy season in the location. Additionally, wind speed, humidity, temperature and rainfall data were collected from the archives of the Nigerian Meteorological Agencies office in Warri for 20 years. A total of fifteen (15) TV sets and fifteen modems of MYTV, DSTV and HITV satellite-cable network were utilized for this study. Results showed that there is variation in the trends of climate parameters in Warri. There is variability in the rainfall, relative humidity as well as the wind speed trends in Warri from 1991-2011. The variations in these climate attributes have effects on the durability and functionalities of satellite cable network in the area. The reception quality for MYTV reduced from 69.8% on days without rainfall to 15.4% on rainy days during the study period, while DSTV signal quality reception was also reduced by rainfall and weather effect to 20.4% on rainy days from 85.6% mean on days without rainfall. HITV signal quality reception of 33.4% on days without rainfall was reduced to 7.2% by the effect of rainfall. Rainfall impairs signal quality. Further, the result revealed that there is a significant variation in cable network reception qualities of MYTV, DSTV and HITV. This is evident from the calculated F-value of 1028.136 which was greater than the critical table-value of 19.49 at 0.05 significant level. The r value shows a correlation of 0.989 between rainfall and MYTV reception quality. However, the R² value of 0.977 shows that 97.7% variation in the quality of signal reception from MYTV is explained by other weather parameters. The r value shows a correlation of 0.994 between wind speed and DSTV reception quality. However, the R² value of 0.988 shows that the quality of the signal reception from DSTV is explained by 98.8% dependency on weather parameters. Similarly, the r value shows a correlation of 0.970 rainfall and HITV reception quality. However, the R² value of 0.942 shows that the quality of the signal reception from MYTV is explained by 94.2% dependency on weather parameters. The policy implications of the findings of this study are that adequate and well-implemented weather monitoring with remote sensing/satellite-based platforms should be captured in the national laws of Nigeria.

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